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Project @ a Glance

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  • Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns, the only genus in the family Azollaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like conventional ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. They float on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely-overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water.
  • Azolla are also serious weeds in many parts of the world, covering bodies of water so thickly that no water is exposed. This is where they derive the name 'mosquito fern', from the belief that no mosquito can penetrate the coating of fern to lay its eggs in the water. Azolla is reputed to be able to grow so quickly that it can double its mass in three days under good conditions.
  • Most of the species can produce large amounts of anthocyanins in bright sunlight, creating an intense red color and causing the water surface to appear to be covered with a red carpet.Mosquito ferns are safe to grow in cool temperate areas with prolonged freezing in winter, as they cannot overwinter in these conditions. They are often grown as an ornamental plant by water-garden hobbyists.
  • Azolla can reproduce asexualy by breaking off. Each branch that breaks off forms a new plant. Azolla can also reproduce sexually. Like all ferns, Azolla produce spores. Unlike most ferns, Azolla produces two kinds of spores. The male sporocarp is greenish or reddish and looks like the egg mass of an insect or spider. It is two millimeters in diameter, and inside are numerous male sporangia. 
  • Azolla has reportedly been used as a feed for pigs and ducks in SE Asia; for cattle, fish and poultry in Vietnam; and for pigs in Singapore and Taiwan. It is described as an excellent substitute for green forage for cattle in Vietnam and may replace up to 50% of the rice bran used as feed for pigs in that country. Although very low in DM, it contains a high level of protein (24% CP). The amino acid composition of Azolla compared well with reference protein sources. 
  • As a supplement for growing pigs, performance was reduced compared to controls in the growing phase but the animals compensated and grew faster in the period from 24-89 kg. It has been used as a sole feed for lactating sows which have a higher intake to deal with the low DM content. 
    Ducks (650-1800g LW) consumed 350g Azolla when given free-choice with sugarcane juice and soya. It is also used for grazing ducks and geese in paddy fields where the Azolla is used as a fertilizer.
  • Based on year 2000 data, the cost savings (per user per hectare) resulting from the biological control program included a reduction of on-site damages caused by the weed to the value of US$589 per hectare per year.
General Information 
  • Azolla
  • Water Weed
  • Azolla Basic Information
  • Azolla spp.
  • The Azolla-Anabaena-Bacteria System as a Natural Microcosm

Species Plant Profile

  • Family Azollaceae Species List
  • Azolla caroliniana Willd
  • Azolla filiculoides
  • Azolla mexicana
  • Azolla nilotica
  • Azolla pinnata

Production and Management 

  • Biological Approaches for Crop Production and Protection
  • Biomass production of Azzolla Pinnata 
  • Azolla Production
  • Taxonomic Re-evaluation of the Azolla genus in Portugal
  • Megasporocarps of Azolla and their Germination in Varied Paddy Soils
  • Plant production
  • Aquatic Plant Management 
  • Phosphorus Requirements of Azolla microphylla
  • Disappearance of the Symbiont Anabaena azollae in Azolla Subjected to High Phosphorus 

  • Aquatic Weeds & their Management

Growing Gardens and Nurseries

  • Hoerr Nursery
  • Ritters Florist and Nursery
  • Sheridan Gardens Nursery Inc
  • Hare Krishna Rural Life Gardening


  • Dung
  • Dr. Maria Andrea de Macale-Kern
  • Dr. Abdullah Harun Chowdhury
  • Arsenio M. Balisacan
  • Hesham Ibrahim
  • Paul L.G. Vlek
  • Joris COLMAN
  • Thomas V. Lowell

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Azolla ZS 32
  • Azolla ZS 46
  • Azolla ZS 68
  • Azolla ZS 100
  • Azolla ZS 150


  • Removal of Metal Ions From Solutions
  • Ultra purification Method and Sampler
  • Control of Aquatic Vegetation with Surfactant and Terpene Oil
  • Stable and Reproducible Sealed Complex Ecosystems
  • Mycoherbicidal Delivery Compositions, Preparation and Methods for Controlling Aquatic Weeds
  • Methods for Recovering Polypeptides from Plants and Portions 
  • Method for Treating Water
  • Farm Technology: Applying High Tech for  High Yields
  • Technologies for Utilizing Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • Innovative Biological Technologies for Lesser Developed Countries
  • Azolla as a Technology to Improve the nitrogen Use Efficiency of Lowland Rice
  • Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Wetland Rice
  • Appropriate Technology
  • Feeds Technology in Aquaculture


  • Azolla Meal
  • Chemical Composition and the Feeding Value of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) Meal for Egg-Type Chicks
  • Azolla as a Feed Ingredient in Broiler Ration
  • The use of Azolla to Increase N Fertilizer
  • Azolla as a Biofertilizer in Coffee Plantations
  • Azolla filiculoides as Partial Replacement for Traditional Protein Supplements in Diets
  • Effect of replacing whole boiled soya beans with azolla in the diets of growing ducks

Market and Report

  • Biodiversity of Azolla and Its Algal Symbiont
  • Greening Trade in Vietnam
  • Azolla as a Biofertiliser in Africa
  • Economic evaluation of the successful biological control of Azolla filiculoides 
  • International Azolla News
  • A `wonder herb' to increase cattle yield
  • Reducing Cultivation Price, With a fern that's nice to rice
  • Product and By-Product Development From Nile Perch - Technical Report
  • Azolla as Rice Greenmanure at Northern Vietnam in 1979
  • Azolla-Anabaena Relationship


  • Biofertilizers
  • The Darwin Azolla Project
  • Applicability of hyperspectral sensors to map the spread of invading plant species
  • Azolla Project
  • National Agriculture Technology Project
  • Paper Project

Suppliers and Guidelines

  • Azolla Biofertilizers Suppliers
  • Azolla Powder Supplier
  • Azolla cultivation-Media presentation
  • Non-native invasive plants
  • Creating a Neighborhood Pond

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Primary Information Services
 21 Murugappan St, SwamyNagar Ext2, 
Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
Email :
Mobile numbers:9940043898, 9444008898  Fax : 91 44 22423753