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  • The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to bear") are animals of the phylum Porifera. They are primitive, sessile, mostly marine, water dwelling, filter feeders that pump water through their bodies to filter out particles of food matter. Sponges also excrete sperm cells through these holes. Sponges represent the simplest of animals. With no true tissues (parazoa), they lack muscles, nerves, and internal organs.
  • Sponges are the most primitive multicellular animals, and as such, lack many of the typical features of animals including nerves and locomotion. Because of this they were placed in the group Parazoa, considered a sister taxon to all higher animals . However the latest DNA evidence shows that sponges are basal to all Metazoans. Sponges share many characteristics with colonial protists, such as Volvox, though they have a higher degree of cell specialization and interdependence.
  • Marine sponges (Porifera) harbor large amounts of commensal microbial communities within the sponge mesohyl.Sponges (Porifera) are ancient metazoans dating back more than 580 million years. They populate tropical and subtropical benthic marine habitats but are also found at higher latitudes and even in freshwater lakes and streams. So far an estimated 15,000 species have been described, but the true diversity is probably much higher .
  • Molecular techniques were employed to document the microbial diversity associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. The use of molecular approaches for describing microbial diversity has greatly enhanced the knowledge of population structure in natural microbial communities. It is widely accepted that culture-based techniques are inadequate for studying bacterial diversity from environmental samples, as many bacteria cannot be cultured using current and traditional techniques.
  • Most medicines come from natural resources and scientists are still exploring the organisms of tropical rainforest for potentially valuable medical products. In terrestrial environment, plants are the richest sources of natural products. However in marine environment, this leading position is taken by invertebrates such as sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, tunicates, etc. They not only produce a great number of marine natural products currently known but also show the largest chemical diversity of natural products, in including alkaloids, peptides, terpenes, polyketides, etc.
  • The marine sponges like dragmacidins, a recently discovered class of alkaloids that perform a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities.
Marine Resources
  • Discovery of the novel candidate phylum “Poribacteria” in marine sponges
  • Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with the marine sponge rhopaloeides odorabile
  • Endosymbiotic yeast maternally transmitted in a Marine Sponge
  • Synergy between phorbol esters, 1-oleyl-2-acetylglycerol, urushiol, and calcium ionophore in eliciting aggregation of marine sponge cells
  • The new sponge resources of Orissa coast

Sponge Cultivation

  • Sponge
  • The Life of a Sponge
  • Cultivation of marine sponges
  • Cultivation of Marine Sponges: From sea to cell


  • Total synthesis of alkaloids
  • Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites from marine sponges and a marine-derived fungus
  • The first total synthesis of Dragmacidin D
  • The total synthesis of (+)-Dragmacidin F
  • The total synthesis of Dragmacidins D and F
  • The formal total synthesis of dragmacidin B, trans-dragmacidin C, and cis- and trans-dihydrohamacanthins A

Centers involved in Marine Sponges

  • The Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology
  • Bio-Screening Centre
  • City of Hope
  • Center of Marine Biotechnology
  • Center for the Science and Engineering of Materials
  • Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine
  • Marine Ecology Center
  • Port Townsend Marine Science Center


  • Gene-to-metabolite networks for terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus cells
  • Metalated heterocycles in organic synthesis: recent applications
  • Up-regulation of integrins a3 b1 in sulfate-starved Marine Sponge cells
  • Marine natural products: synthetic aspects
  • Richmond Sarpong
  • Adam  Nelson
  • Carrol Group
  • Michele Davis McGibony
  • Neil K. Garg


  • Methods for making bis-heterocyclic alkaloids
  • Anti-neurogenic inflammatory compounds and compositions and methods of use thereof
  • Use for topsentin compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
  • Use of imidazole and indole compounds as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase
  • Use for bis-heterocyclic compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
  • Compounds and methods of use for treatment of neurogenic inflammation
  • Method for the synthesis of soritin compounds
  • Synthetic compounds for treatment of inflammation


  • Bartoli indole synthesis
  • Synthesis of biaryl molecules by suzuki-miyaura coupling
  • Development of an enantiodivergent strategy for the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Dragmacidin F from a single enantiomer of quinic acid
  • Structure elucidation of bioactive marine natural products using modern methods of spectroscopy
  • A unified synthetic approach to the pyrazinone dragmacidins
  • Recent advances in enantiodivergent strategies

Market and Report

  • Student searches for cures in sponges
  • Georgia Southern University market
  • Biotechnological potential of marine sponges
  • Marine pharmacology in 1998
  • Marine Pharmacology in 2000
  • City of Hope 2006 annual report
  • Synthetic studies of marine indole and related systems


  • Marine Biodiversity
  • Sponges: Branches on the tree of life
  • Marine Ed Resource Guide

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