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  • Ephedra's main active medical ingredients are the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The ephedras also contain various tannins and related chemicals. The stem contains 1-3% total alkaloids, with ephedrine accounting for 30-90% of this total. The concentrations of these alkaloids depends upon the particular species of ephedra used. Ephedrine alkaloids are amphetamine-like compounds used in OTC and prescription drugs with potentially lethal stimulant effects on the central nervous system and heart. 
  • Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. Ephedrine is commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant and to treat hypotension associated with regional anaesthesia. Chemically, it is an alkaloid derived from various plants in the genus Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). It is most usually marketed in the hydrochloride and sulfate forms.
  • The production of ephedrine in China has become a multi-million dollar export industry. Companies producing for export extract US$13 million worth of ephedrine from 30,000 tons of ephedra annually, 10 times the amount that is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Professor Long Chen argues that this is placing a too-heavy burden on the natural production of ephedrine, leading to the restricted availability of some herbs traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine.
  • Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres. By convention the enantiomers with opposite stereochemistry around the chiral centres are designated ephedrine, while pseudoephedrine has same stereochemistry around the chiral carbons. That is, (1R,2R)- and (1S,2S)-enantiomers are designated pseudoephedrine; while (1R,2S)- and (1S,2R)-enantiomers are designated ephedrine.The isomer which is marketed is (-)-(1R,2S)-ephedrine.
  • Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine - that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect action on the adrenergic receptor system, which is part of the sympathetic nervous system or SNS. Whilst it may have weak agonist activity at a- and ß-adrenergic receptors, the principal mechanism is to displace norepinephrine from storage vesicles in presynaptic neurons. The displaced norepinephrine is released into the neuronal synapse where it is free to activate the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors.
  • Ephedrine continues to be used intravenously in the reversal of hypotension from spinal/epidural anesthesia is also used in other hypotensive states, including overdose with ganglionic blocking agents, antiadrenergic agents, or other medications that lower blood pressure. It can be used in narcolepsy and nocturnal enuresis.In traditional Chinese medicine, ephedrine has been used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis for centuries.
  • China and India remain the primary sources for precursor chemicals required in the production of ATS. In recent years both countries have introduced measures to minimise clandestine exports of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine which is likely to assist efforts to control access to precursor chemicals. 
  • Ephedra has medicinal and pharmacological properties. It affects the body in several different ways. It is one of the few preparations that increase metabolism, especially of stored body fat. For this reason, it is very popular, and for most overweight individuals, effective in promoting loss of unwanted weight. Health Canada classifies ephedrine as a drug, and cannot be sold without a drug identification number or DIN. And ephedrine can only be sold and marketed if labelled as a nasal decongestant. 
 General and Extraction
  • Ephedrine Information
  • About Ephedra
  • Ephedra viridis Coville Information
  • Chemistry and Biological Actions
  • Facts about Drugs
  • Biotransformation for L-Ephedrine Production
  • On-line Extraction of Ephedrine from Plasma using strata™ X 
  • Extraction and Separation of Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine

Properties and Functions

  • The Preparation and Properties of Ephedrine and its Salts
  • Purification and Properties of Phenylethanolamine-N-methyl Transferase
  • Ephedrine Plus Caffeine Causes Age-Dependent Cardiovascular Responses
  • The Effects of Fenoterol, Ephedrine and Placebo on Exercise-Induced Asthma
  • The Dose Effect of Ephedrine on the Onset Time of Vecuronium 
  • Ephedra/ephedrine: Cardiovascular and CNS Effects
  • Prophylactic i.m. Ephedrine in Bupivacaine Spinal Anaesthesia
  • The Sympathomimetic Actions of l-Ephedrine and d-Pseudoephedrine 
  • The Thermogenic Properties of Ephedrine/Methylxanthine Mixtures
  • Water Potentiates the Pressor Effect of Ephedra Alkaloids

Company Profiles and Consultants

  • Krebs Biochemicals & Industries Limited
  • Emmellen Biotech
  • Micheal A. Hodzen
  • Yuming Su
  • Bruce A. Goldberger, Ph.D., DABFT
  • Cindy May Meston, Ph.D.
  • Valeri A. Farmer-Dougan
  • Elisabeth HM de Jonge
  • Richard S. Grippo
  • Shannon C.Miller

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine
  • Ephedrine Sulfate
  • Ephedrine
  • Ephedrine Hemi-Hydrate
  • Ephedrine Hydrochloride
  • (-)-Ephedrine, Anhydrous


  • Production of Pellets Composed of an Ephedrine Derivative
  • Chewing Gum Containing Ephedrine, Synerphrine and Caffeeine
  • Composition Containing Ephedrine Base and Alkyl Salicylate fro the Delivery of Ephedrine Base in the Vapor Form
  • Efficient and Convinient Procedure for the Synthesis of B-Alkylated oxazaborolidines Derived from Ephedrine and NorEphedrine
  • Esterified Ephedrine Derivatives with Prolonged Antiulcer Activity
  • Methods for the Synthesis of Amine Such as Ephedrine and Intermediates
  • Polymeric Diffusion Matrix Containing Ephedrine
  • Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine Precursors
  • Resolution Process Using L or D N-Methyl-Ephedrine
  • Impeding the extraction of active ingredients out of tablets

Products and  Applications

  • Ephedrine Bing Products
  • Ephedrine Product List
  • Ephedrine Products
  • Products Containing Ephedrine
  • Chemicals used in Drug Production
  • Ephedrine and Its Uses
  • Ephedrine and its use in Weight Loss
  • Use of Ephedrine Products
  • Ephedrine for Weight Loss
  • Ephedrine, but Not Phenylephrine, Increases Bispectral Index Values During Combined General and Epidural Anesthesia 
  • Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance Enhancement 
  • Dräger Simultest Technology for Clandestine Drug Labs
  • Ultrafast Analysis of Ephedra Alkaloids by High Temperature Liquid Chromatography and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry 
  • Technology Impacts on Drug Production in Asia
  • Quantitative Analysis of Ephedra Alkaloids in Commercial Products by High Temperature LC-TOFMS 
  • Stratification and Mapping of Ephedra gerardiana Wall. in Poh 


  • The Potential Expansion of Methamphetamine Production and Distribution in Canada 
  • Amphetamine International Trends
  • Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids
  • Lawmakers Hooked On Stimulants Make Fast Money Delaying Justice 
  • Popular weight loss ingredient has caused some serious health problems
  • Ephedra Back on the Market
  • FDA to pull Weight loss aid Ephedra From Market
  • The Post-Ephedra Weight loss Market


  • Ephedra Health Report
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Report
  • Krebs 2004-2005 Report
  • Asymmetric Synthesis Via Nor-Ephedrine Derived 2-al kenyloxazolidines 
  • Eliminating Meth Labs through Effective Pseudo/ephedrine Control 
  • Increasing Involvement of Canadian Nationals in  Ephedrine Trade Found
  • Adverse Events Associated with Ephedrine-Containing Products


  • Indian Exporters & Manufacturers
  • Foreign Exporters & Manufacturers
  • Wholesalers of Ephedrine
  • Ephedrine Exporters
  • Suppliers of Ephedrine
  • Ephedrine Suppliers
  • (-)-Ephedrine Sulfate Suppliers
  • Trade Leads
  • Chinese Suppliers for (1R,2S)-(-)-Ephedrine nitrate
  • Manufacturers of Ephedrine
  • Selling Leads of Ephedrine
  • Online Catalogs


  • Foreign Importers & Buyers
  • Ephedrine Buying Leads
  • Ephedrine Buyers
  • Ephedrine Buyers List
  • UK Buyer

Hazards and Guides

  • Dangers of Ephedrine and Ephedra Based Fat Burners
  • Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses 
  • Side Effects and Risks of Ephedra Products
  • Dangers of Ephedrine
  • Frequently Asked Questions 
  • Ephedrine-The effects, the risks, the law
  • Adverse Effects of Botanical and Non-Botanical Ephedrine Products

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