Glucosamine                                                               
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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar that is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is commonly used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, although its acceptance as a medical therapy varies.
  • As a dietary supplement, glucosamine occurs in three possible forms: as glucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine sulfate (the most commonly studied), and N-acetyl glucosamine. The raw material for glucosamine supplements has historically been derived from extraction of chitin, a component of shellfish (shrimp, crab, and lobster).
  • D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars . Specifically, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose- 6-phosphate and glutamine as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway.
  • Oral glucosamine is commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
  • The principal sources of human exposure to glucosamine products occur from the ingestion of dietary supplements and sports beverages. These products are intended to treat or prevent degenerative joint diseases, chronic conditions that increase with age and are common in athletes.
  • Glucosamine is the principal component of O-linked and N-linked glycosaminoglycans (sialic acid, hyaluronan, keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate). Glycosaminoglycans form the matrix of all connective tissue. Glucosamine is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of all the hexosamines that will form sialic acids and proteoglycans.
  • Glucosamine sulfate has several actions. It serves as a precursor for, and inhibits the degradation of, proteoglycans; it rebuilds experimentally induced cartilaginous damage; and it has chondroprotective and antiarthritic effects.
  • Glucosamine sulfate has very mild anti-inflammatory and antireactive effects on edema-provoking agents including carrageenan, dextran,acetic acid and formalin.
  • The annual cost of glucosamine sulphate is comparable with that of COX-2 selective inhibitors, however if the 550,000 patients with knee OA were to receive this drug in accordance with the recommended dose regimen, the annual cost to the NHS would be approximately 200 million.
  • Troika Pharma, which has a substantial market share in the open-heart surgery injectables with its established brands such as Dopicine, Prucide and Mynate, is currently planning the launch of another version of the Glucosamine tablet - Cartilamine Florelease, which is recommended for the patients who are in recovery stage.
General
  • Glucosamine
  • Glucosamine History
  • Glucosamine Uses
  • Glucosamine Sulphate
  • Glucosamine Sulfate: Pharmacology
  • Glucosamine, Chondroitin and Joint Health
  • Glucosamine Overview
  • Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate
  • Scientific Evidence for Glucosamine
  • A Case for Glucosamine
  • Chemical Selection

Production

  • N-Acetyl-DGlucosamine
    Fermentation
  • Glucosamine Process
  • Preparation of Glucosamine Salts
  • Process of Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride
  • Preparation of Glucosamine Hydrochloride

Technology

  • Glucosamine Sulphate for Pain Relief and Disease Modification in Osteoarthritis
  • New Glucosamine Ingredient
  • New Source for Glucosamine
  • Solution of N-Acetyl Glucosamine
  • Treatment of Osteoarthritis
  • Glucosamine HCl

Products

  • Complex Flexicose
  • Glucosamine Joint Liquid For Horses
  • Glucosamine Sulfate
  • Glucosamine Hydrochloride
  • N-Acetyl Glucosamine
  • Glucosamine and Chondroitin Tablets for Pills
Applications
  • Antitumor Activities of D-Glucosamine and its Derivatives
  • Production of Microbially Modified Cellulose
  • Effectiveness of Glucosamine Ingestion
  • Induction of EAE and Glucosamine Treatment
  • Glutamine Metabolism to Glucosamine
  • Immunosuppressive Effects of Glucosamine
  • N-Butyryl Glucosamine Increases Matrix Gene Expression by Chondrocytes
  • Protein Glycosylation
  • Glucosamine Inhibition of ICAM-1 Production
  • Long-Term Effects of Glucosamine Sulphate on Osteoarthritis Progression
  • Diacerein Versus Glucosamine in Rat Model of Osteoarthritis
  • Glucosamine Sulphate in Osteoarthritis
  • Bioavailability of Glucosamine in Rat
  • N-Acetyl Glucosamine Prevents Chondrocyte Activation
  • Production of N-Acetylneuraminic acid from N-Acetyl Glucosamine
  • Polyvalent Dendrimer Glucosamine Conjugates Prevent Scar Tissue Formation
  • Treating BHK Cells with Glucosamine
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin 3
  • Induction of Insulin Resistance by Glucosamine
Project
  • Marine Bioactivity
  • Glucosamine Research Study
  • Investment of Chitin-Chitosa and Glucosamine Project
  • Extramural Projects

Consultant

  • Serita D. Frey
  • Expert Consulting and Expert Witness Services
  • Dr. Janet Maccaro
  • Rajeswari Ravindranath
  • Richard Vance Wolfenden

Hazards, Safety and Guidelines

  • Glucosamine Side Effects
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Effectiveness and Safety Related to the Use of Glucosamine in Patients with Osteoarthritis
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin
  • Glucosamine Hydrochloride
  • Glucosamine for Arthritis
  • Guide to Glucosamine Products
  • Glucosamine Product Guide

Reports

  • Review of Articular Cartilage Pathology
  • Do Glucosamine and Chondroiitiin Sulphate Work
  • Troika Pharma Launches Glucosamine Preparations for Osteoarthritis
  • JAMA Report on Glucosamine and Chondroitin
  • Glucosamine Easing Arthritis Pain
  • Ibuprofen Versus Glucosamine Sulfate
  • Asthma Exacerbation Associated with Glucosamine-Chondroitin Supplement
  • Glucosamine Effects in Humans

Market

  • Kyowa Hakko to Market Cargill's Vegetarian Glucosamine
  • Glucosamine Price Rises Set to Boost Market for Quality Products
  • Glucosamine Studies Encourage Joint Health Industry
  • European Glucosamine Market
  • Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate Market
  • Oral Joint Supplement Products Marketed to Horse Owners
  • Nutritional Health Supplements

Manufacturers, Suppliers, Exporters and Importers

  • Glucosamine Manufacturers and Exporters
  • Glucosamine - Suppliers / Distributors /Traders
  • Herbal Extracts Exporters
  • Chinese Suppliers for D-Glucosamine hydrochloride
  • Worldwide Glucosamine Manufacturers and Suppliers
  • Glucosamine Sellers
  • Glucosamine Sulphate Exporters in India
  • Glucosamine Exporters and Distributors
  • Glucosamine Suppliers
  • Rosemary's Health Foods Glucosamine
  • Glucosamine Importers

Company Profiles

  • Zhejiang Aoxing Biotechnology Co., Ltd
  • Fraken Biochem
  • Kraeber & Co. GmbH
  • Norwegian Chitosan
  • SORM Corporation Limited
  • Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry
  • Taizhou Candorly Sea Biochemical & Health Products Co., Ltd

 

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