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  • Rubidium is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rb is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group. Rb-87, a naturally occurring isotope, is very slightly radioactive.
  • Rubidium is the twenty-third most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It occurs in the minerals pollucite, carnallite, leucite and lepidolite, from which it is recovered commercially. Potassium minerals and brines also contain this element and are a further commercial source.
  • Rubidium can be liquid at room temperature. It ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water, igniting the liberated hydrogen. It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, caesium, potassium and sodium. It colours a flame yellowish-violet.
  • A common method for producing rubidium is to pass an electrical current through molten (melted) rubidium chloride.
  • Bose-Einstein condensates of rubidium-87 are produced in a multistage process involving laser cooling and trapping, as well as evaporative cooling in a magnetic trap.
  • A sample of rubidium is first heated to 120C in an oven chamber. A thermal atomic beam escapes from the oven and enters a Zeeman slower tube where it is decelerated by photon scattering from a red-detuned, counterpropagating laser beam.
  • Rubidium is obtained as a minor byproduct of the processing of lepidolite and pollucite. These ores are found, often together, in just a few zoned pegmatites around the world and are mined on a small scale by selective methods.
  • Saturated absorption spectroscopy using a narrow band diode laser was applied to the determination of Rb in a laboratory- detect isotopes of built see- through hollow cathode glow discharge cell.
  • A technique for manipulatlon of the rubidium metal such that it iS available In stored quantities In the pure metal form, methods of controlling the cleanliness in the filling operation and the amount Of metal per cell, the design of a liquid N 2 1 cold trap for a bakeable system, and novel fixtures for fabricating " glass components The initial components fabTicated by these techniques are currently being eveluated for performance and long llfe reliability.
  • Selective field ionization Technique is followed by a slow ramp in rubidium and apply this scheme to an electron scattering experiment, corroborating dipole selection rules in fast electron scattering induced excitation.
  • Rubidium is used little outside research. It is easily ionised so was considered for use in ion engines, but was found to be less effective than caesium. It has been proposed for use as a working fluid for vapour turbines and in thermoelectric generators.
  • Rubidium vapor has been used to make atomic magnetometers. 87Rb is currently being used, with other alkali metals, in the development of spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometers.
  • Rubidium is used to make atomic clocks. An atomic clock is a device for keeping very exact time. A radioactive isotope of rubidium is also used to measure the age of very old objects.
General Information
  • Rubidium - Basic Information
  • Rubidium - Rb - Chemical Data
  • Rubidium - Periodic table
  • Rubidium - Physical Properties
  • Rubidium

Production

  • U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries in 2008
  • U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries in 2004
  • U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries in 2005
  • U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006
  • U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007
  • Mineral Commodity Profiles Rubidium

Process

  • Tight coupling of rubidium conductance and inactivation in human KCNQ1 potassium channels
  • Disciplined Rubidium Oscillator with GPS Selective Availability
  • Dissociation of Rubidium Uptake by Neurospora crassa in to entry and Binding Phase
  • Ionization of sodium and rubidium nS, nP, and nD Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation
  • Systematics Studies of Rubidium Optical Pumping
  • Rubidium - Overview
  • Six-Wave Mixing Near-Infrared Emissions in Rubidium Vapor
  • Structure and Molecular Motions in RubidiumTetraphenylborate
  • A strongly confining dipole trap for Rubidium atoms

Application

  • Accumulation of Lipid-soluble Ions and of Rubidium as Indicators of the Electrical Potential in Membrane s of Escherichia coli
  • Blue five-level frequency-upconversion system in rubidium
  • Non-Linear Spectroscopy of Rubidium in Hollow-Core Fibers
  • Field Testing Rubidium Marking for Quantifying Intercrop Movement of Predatory Arthropods
  • The Suppression o the Late After-Potential in Rubidium-Containing Frog Muscle Fibers
  • Gating and Flickery Block Differentially Affected by Rubidium in Homomeric KCNQ1 and Heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 Potassium Channels
  • Rubidium-87 Concentration in Market Milk
  • Use of Rubidium to Label Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Greenbugs (Homoptera: Aphididae), for Dispersal Studies
Project
  • An intense source of rubidium condensates
  • Evaluation of Grain Sorghum as a Predator Source for Biological Pest Control in Texas Agroecosystems
  • A New Synchronized Miniature Rubidium Oscillator with an Auto Adaptive Disciplined Filter
  • Rubidium chloride (RbCl) and cesium chloride (CsCl) Sprayed on Maize Plants and Evaluated for marking Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in mark-recapture dispersal studies.
  • Rubidium spectroscopy with 778-780 nm distributed feedback laser diodes
  • Trapping of rubidium
  • Research Rubidium Project
Technology
  • Determination of rubidium isotopes by using saturated absorption spectroscopy and a seethrough hollow cathode glow discharge cell
  • EXAFS Study of Silver and Rubidium Environments in Silicate Glasses
  • Some Fabrication Techniques of Spectral Lamps and Gas Absorption Cells for Rubidium Magnetometers
  • Ion Absorption by Shoot Tissue: Kinetics of Potassium and Rubidium Absorption by Corn Leaf Tissue
  • State-selective field ionization of rubidium
  • Myocardial Perfusion with Rubidium-82. Effects of Metabolic and Pharmacologie Interventions
  • Determination of Rubidium in Seawater

Patent

  • Confinement of Cesium and/or Rubidium in Apatitic Ceramics
  • Therapeutic Preparation  Containing Cesium Ions
  • Hyperfine Filter for the Resonance lines of Cesium and Rubidium
  • Therapeutic Methods and Preparation using Rubidium Ions
  • Process for the Production of K or Rb-Beta or -Beta- Aluminium oxide ion conductors
  • Separation of Cesium from Potassium and Rubidium
  • Process for Separation of Zirconium-88, Rubidium-83 and Yitrium-88

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Rubidium Alloy
  • Rubidium Bromide
  • Safety data for rubidium nitrate
  • Rubidium
  • Rubidium chloride
  • Rubidium Standard Solution

Properties & Function

  • Collective and Collisional Properties of the Rubidium Quantum Gas
  • Review of luminescence and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic KMnCl3, RbMnCl3, TlMnCl3 and (CnH2n+1NH3)2MnCl4 (n = 1, 2).
  • Growth and Magnetic properties of rubidium rare earth double tungstates single crystals.
  • Effects of Rubidium in Purified Diets in Fed Rats
  • Ultracold scattering properties of the short-lived Rb isotopes
  • The effect of Rubidium Ions and Membrane Potential on the intracellular sodium activity of  sheep Purkinke fibres.
  • Effect of Rubidium Vapor on Bayard-Alpert ionization Gages at pressure less than 1*10^6  Torr

Market & Report

  • Annual Average Primary Rubidium Price
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of Rubidium-82 Myocardial Perfusion Imaging With Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease
  • Beta Decay of Rubidium-82 in a Magnetic TOP-Trap
  • Local Structure of Rubidium ion in Ion-exchange Resin
  • Rubidium-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
  • Solid-state 87Rb NMR signatures for rubidium cations bound to a G-quadruplex

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