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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Ruthenium is a metallic chemical element which is fairly rare in the Earth's crust.
  • Ruthenium is a hard, white metal and has four crystal modifications.
  • In appearance, ruthenium is a dull silver-gray element which tends to be very brittle and extremely hard.
  • Ruthenium tends to occur along with deposits of platinum and is primarily obtained as a byproduct of mining and refining platinum.
  • The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but when potassium chlorate is added to the solution, it oxidises explosively.
  • Ruthenium is also a versatile catalyst.
  • Ruthenium is a versatile metal that can easily form compounds with carbon ruthenium bonds, as these compounds tend to be darker and react more quickly than the osmium compounds.
  • The metal is isolated commercially by a complex chemical process, the final stage of which is the hydrogen reduction of ammonium
    ruthenium chloride, which yields a powder.
  • A conventional method for the separation of ruthenium from the platinum metals is based on the distillation of volatile ruthenium tetroxide.
  • Ruthenium is obtained by separating it from other platinum metals, such as platinum, palladium, and osmium, with which it occurs.
  • Ruthenium is primarily used as an alloying agent.
  • The metal is also used to make wear-resistant moving parts for various consumer goods, and it appears in some electronics.
  • Ruthenium is also used in some advanced high-temperature single-crystal superalloys, with applications including the turbine blades in jet engines.
  • The growing use of ruthenium in widely different fields has made it necessary to develop simple, inexpensive and sensitive methods for its determination.
  • Ruthenium catalysts can be used in a range of processes from the manufacture of acetic acid to that of ammonia.
  • Demand for ruthenium, the forgotten metal, from the IT sector exploded when a new method of coating computer hard disks, called
    perpendicular magnetic recording, gained popularity.
  • The consumption of ruthenium in the sector will grow even faster than the actual sales numbers of drives would indicate.
  • Ruthenium use in chip resistors remained flat with component miniaturisation and growth in the electronics market balancing one another in their effect on metal consumption.
  • The pgm industry has invested
    substantial amounts to expand ruthenium refining capacity and high volumes of ruthenium were
    processed last year.
  • Ruthenium has various valencies (0 to 8 valene) and is not so expensive transition metal; therefore, various useful catalytic reactions for organic synthesis have been explored.
  • Element Ruthenium
  • Isolation
  • Properties
  • Chemical properties of ruthenium
  • Ruthenium
  • Ruthenium - info
  • History and Uses
  • Oxidation States of Ruthenium and Osmium
  • What is Ruthenium?

Products and MSDS
  • Ruthenium
  • Ruthenium 535
  • Technical Data Sheet
  • Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium Chloride MSDS
  • Ruthenium Oxide
  • Ruthenium Red
  • Safety data for ruthenium
  • Ruthenium 1000 PPM A/S Standard

  • Precious Metal Extraction Process
  • Ruthenium Compounds, Their Production and Use
  • Removal of Ruthenium By-Product by Supercritical Fluid Processing
  • Separation of Uranyl and Ruthenium Values by the Tributyl Phosphate Extraction Process
  • Ruthenium Recovery Process by Solvent Extraction
  • Ruthenium (II) Compounds for use in the Therapy of Cancer

  • Characterization of Ruthenium and Rutheniumoxide Thin Films
    prepared by Atomic Vapor Deposition
  • Ruthenium Dioxide pH Electrode in Thick-Film Technology
  • Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Ruthenium for Capacitor Bottom Electrode in DRAM Technology
  • Novel Ruthenium Catalysts for Atom Transfer Radical Reactions
  • Properties of Ruthenium as Diffusion Barrier in Seedless Interconnect Technology
  • Nano-layer Of Ruthenium Stabilizes Magnetic Sensors
  • Catalysis Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at USC

Extraction Process
  • Extraction Process
  • Extraction of Ruthenium and Its Separation from Rhodium and Palladium with 4-Pyridone Derivatives
  • Extraction of Fission Ruthenium in the form of Heterometallic Complexes from Nitrate - Nitrite Solutions
  • The Radiochemistry of Ruthenium
  • A New Platinum Metals Refinery

Company Profiles and Suppliers

  • Company from Oregon
  • Company from Japan
  • Company from New Jersey
  • Company from Okato
  • Ruthenium Manufacturers
  • Ruthenium Suppliers
  • Ruthenium demand slows in magnetic media
  • Other Platinum Group Metals
  • Precious White Cinderella
  • Market Review
  • Ruthenium demand expected to rise 4% to 1,34-million ounces

Commodity Profiles

  • 2002 Profile
  • 2003 Profile
  • 2004 Profile
  • 2005 Profile
  • 2006 Profile
  • 2007 Profile
  • 2008 Profile


  • Production in the year 2000
  • Production in the year 2001
  • Production in the year 2002
  • Production in the year 2003
  • Production in the year 2004
  • Production in the year 2005
  • Production in the year 2006


  • Hydration and hydroamination of 1-alkynes with ruthenium catalysts
  • Use of Ruthenium/Alumina as a Convenient Catalyst for
    Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reactions
  • High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ion-Coordinating Ruthenium
    Sensitizer for Efficient and Stable Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar
  • Ruthenium catalysis in organic synthesis
  • Role of Ruthenium in Organic Chemistry


  • Consultant from Florida
  • Experts
  • Consultant from Gelnhausen
  • Consultancy Service


  • Adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal
  • Isotopic Transient Analysis of Base-Promoted Ruthenium Catalysts during Ammonia Synthesis
  • Some aspects of the coordination and catalytic chemistry of ruthenium
  • Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of polypyridyl  ligands
  • Electrochemical Behavior of Thin Ruthenium–Modified Cobalt-Hexacyanoferrate Films Immobilized on Self Assembled Monolayer Gold Electrodes
  • A Formally Zwitterionic Ruthenium Catalyst Precursor for the Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones that Does Not Feature an Ancillary Ligand N H Functionality

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