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  • Thorium is a chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90.
  • Pure thorium is a silvery-white metal that retains its luster for several months.
  • Thorium has the largest liquid range of any element: 2946 K between the melting point and boiling point.
  • Thorium is a naturally-occurring, slightly radioactive metal.
  • It is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils, where it is about three times more abundant than uranium.
  • It is the most common of a group of elements called the actinides.
  • The most common ores of thorium are thorite and monazite.
  • Thorium is a relatively abundant element in the Earth's crust. Scientists estimate that the crust contains about 15 parts per million of the element.
  • The thorium in monazite, thorite, or other minerals is first converted to thorium dioxide (ThO2). This thorium dioxide is then heated with calcium to get the free element.
    U-233 must be recycled if thorium cycle is to be sustainable.
  • Calculations are performed to estimate the feasibility of operation of heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in self-su±cient thorium cycle.
  • Cost of thorium mining is much less than that of uranium because the radiation danger in the process of thorium mining is »100 times less than in the uranium mining.
  • The most important thorium compound commercially is thorium dioxide. It is used in high-temperature ceramics.
  • A novel reactor-design concept termed the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) has been developed that shows potential for early application in conventional pressurized water reactors.
  • Over the past decade,thorium-234 has increasingly been used to quantify particle fluxes from surface waters in both open-ocean and coastal environments.
  • The coating of mouse myocardial cells has been investigated with a variety of cytochemical methods. The coating of the surface membrane gives a positive reaction with ruthenium red, colloidal thorium, phosphotungstic acid (PTA) at low pH, silver methenamine after periodic oxidation(PA-silver technique).
  • A procedure has been developed for the determination of uranium and thorium in geological samples using extraction chromatography.
  • A new oxidimetric method for the titrimetric determination of thorium is based on the precipitation of thorium as the normal molybdate followed by the reduction and titration of the molybdenum equivalent to the thorium.
  • Total amount of thorium produced worldwide: 37 500 tonnes(US, Australia, China, India).
  • Norway has one of the major thorium reserves in the world.
  • Thorium demand worldwide remained depressed because of concerns over its naturally occurring radioactivity.
  • Exports of thorium compounds from the United States were 1,090 kilograms (kg) valued at $424,000, an increase from the 737 kg.
  • Thorium consumption worldwide is relatively small compared with that of most other mineral commodities.
    All thorium compounds, metal, and alloys used by the domestic industry were derived from imports, company stocks, or material previously  acquired from the U.S. Government stockpile.
General Information
  • Chemical Fact Sheet - Thorium
  • About Thorium
  • Thorium - Periodic Table
  • Thorium Information
  • Thorium

Company Profile

  • Company from Australia
  • Company from New York
  • Company from Norway
  • Company from USA
  • List of Mining Companies
  • Thorium Supplier


  • Thorium Commodity Profile from 2003-2007
  • Thorium Commodity Profile from 2000-2004
  • Thorium Commodity Profile from 2001-2005
  • Thorium Commodity Profile from 2002-2006
  • Thorium Commodity Profile 2002
  • Thorium Commodity Profile 2003
  • Thorium Commodity Profile 2004
  • Thorium Commodity Profile 2005
  • Thorium Commodity Profile 2006


  • Thorium cycle
  • Thorium Mining
  • Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle
  • Thorium cycle with respect to waste management.
  • Thorium Process Overview
  • Thorium
  • Treatment of Uranium and Thorium Chips at the DOE Sites


  • A Coated Graphite Thorium-Ion Selective Potentiometric Sensor Based on a Calix[4]arene Bearing Phosphoryl Groups
  • The coating of mouse myocardial cells : A  cytochemical Electron Microscopical Study
  • Determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials using extraction chromatography
  • Engineering Considerations Regarding Implemantation of a Thorium Fuel Cycle in a Uranium Based Operating CANDU 6™ or ACR-1000™
  • Micro Sphere Impregnation Technique for the Fabrication of Dense (TH,U)O2 Pellet
  • New Titrimetric Methods for Thorium
  • Determination of Thorium in Solution by Using Standard Addition Method of X-Ray Spectroscopy


  • Lithium Wishes, Thorium Possibilities and Hydrogen Dreams
  • Thorium-Based Fuel May Play Role in Plutonium Disposition
  • Future Applications of Thorium-234 in Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Thorium Based Fuel Designed to Reduce the Proliferation Potential and Waste Disposal requirements of Light Water Reactors
  • Review of the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor Concept
  • Use of Thorium reserve Depends on Uranium
  • Thorium Utilization - Nuclear power Programme

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Tungsten Electrodes
  • Thorium Fluoride
  • Safety data for thorium nitrate
  • Thorium AA Standard


  • Consultant from California
  • Consultant from Canada
  • US Consultant from Colorado
  • Consultant from Minnesota
  • Consultant from Texas
  • Consultant from UK
  • Consultant from US


  • Process for Concentrating Thorium Containing Magnesium Slag
  • Method of Separating Thorium from Plutonium
  • Process for Selectively Concentrating the Radioactivity of Thorium Containing Magnesium Slag
  • Process for Removing Thorium and Recovering Vanadium from Titanium Chlorinator Waste
  • Separation of Thorium and Rare Earth Values from Fluorides Concentrates Thereof
  • Treatment Process for Removing Radioactive Thorium from Solvent Extraction Liquid Effluent


  • Correlation of Thorium-232 Radiation to ATP Production Rate of Mitochondria
  • European Transmutation Fuels Projects
  • Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center
  • Occupational medical examinations on the thorium substituent exposure of welders during use of thorium-free tungsten inert-gas electrodes and on their significance for health
  • Thorium project

Safety Issues

  • Safety of burning (then inhaling) Thorium Fluoride coating
  • Health and Safety Aspects of Thorium Production
  • The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Launching the Thorium Cycle While Closing the Current Fuel Cycle
  • Nuclear Fuel Cycles Issues and Challenges
  • Potential for Human Exposure


  • Thorium in Australia
  • Thorium as Nuclear Fuel
  • Thorium as an energy source –
    opportunities for Norway
  • Research and Development in Canada’s Mining and Mineral Processing Industries
  • Thorium Statistics - US Geological Survey


  • Thorium-230 coral chronology of a late prehistoric Hawaiian chiefdom
  • Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board - Staff Issue Report
  • Metallurgy Division - Quarterly Progress Report
  • Papers Presented for Thorium - Summary Report
  • Short Papers of the U.S. Geological Survey Uranium-Thorium Symposium
  • A Qualitative Assessment Of Thorium-Based Fuels In Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors


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