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Information Profile @ a Glance
  • Phosphogypsum (PG) is a byproduct of the chemical reaction called the “wet process”, whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the phosphoric acid needed
    for fertilizer production
  • For every ton of phosphoric acid made, some 4–5 tons of PG are
    created. World widely, there are several billions of tons of PG, and the annual production is estimated to be 100–200 million tons
  • Phosphogypsum, the byproduct contains uranium and radium. The radium is of particular concern because it decays to form radon, a cancer-causing, radioactive gas.
    Phosphogypsum is virtually useless, and is disposed of in large, above-ground stacks, or piles
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated phosphogypsum since 1989 and has banned all use of the material, except for phosphogypsum with extremely low radionuclide concentrations. EPA requires phosphogypsum to be placed in large piles or “stacks” to prevent it from entering the environment.
  • The worldwide use of PG is still below 15% of its output . They are just stockpiled in waste repositories
  • Basic Facts
  • Fertilizer production Wastes
  • Radioactivity of phosphogypsum to be studied
  • Stack Free
  • Indian Situation


  • Mineralogical & Geochemical Characterization
  • Material safety data sheet
  • Forage Yield and Quality


  • Crystallization
  • Filtration of phosphogypsum
  • Phosphogypsum stabilisation process
  • Partitioning of radionuclides
  • Reprocessing into Gypsum Binding Materials
  • Conversion Technologies
  • Zinc Adsorption
  • Remediation of phosphogypsum impacted sites.
  • Radioactivity measurement Instruments
  • Instruments to trace radioactivity

Regulatory Issues

  • Standards for Radon
    Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks
  • Rules on uses & applications
  • Exposure Limits


  • Use in Agriculture
  • Utilization of phosphogypsum for backfilling
  • Building Materials
  • Manufacturing Glass Products
  • Composites for Marine applications
  • Composites for Saltwater Applications
  • Pavement Material for Roads
  • Agriculture
  • Marine applications
  • Gypsum Cement
  • Cement Mortar
  • Bricks
  • Gypsum plaster boards
  • Use in Cement production
  • Glass & Ceramic Products
  • Compendium of Processes & applications


  • Suppliers
  • Project Proposal
  • List of Fertilizer companies in India
  • Fertilizer companies links
  • Phosphate Rock Data 2009
  • The trade in radioactive materials – potential problems and possible solutions


  • Naturally Occurring
    Radioactive Materials
  • Ecological Concerns
  • Environmental Issues
  • Phosphorus value in urine
  • Phosphogypsum versus Borrow Pits

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