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  • Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas and is the most important hormone in the body to regulate blood glucose levels. A partial or complete lack of insulin causes diabetes, which, untreated, is often fatal by the teenage years.
  • Before insulin was discovered, diabetes was managed through diet, which allowed patients to survive, but generally for just a few years after diagnosis. Doctors finally had a means to offer patients a nearly normal quality of life, and it quickly became necessary to increase insulin production.
  • For 60 years, cattle and pigs were the sources of insulin. Although these products were highly effective, concerns arose about the growing diabetic population, long-term supply, and potential allergic reactions.
  • Insulin consists of a 21-amino acid A chain and a 30-amino acid B chain, linked by two disulfide bonds. It can be produced either by generating the chains separately and chemically combining them or by creating a single-chain precursor, human proinsulin, and cleaving out a 35-amino acid connecting peptide. For manufacturing the drug, the proinsulin route is favored because it requires a single fermentation and isolation step.
  • Insulin is often described as being either 'natural' ('animal') or 'human'. The sequence of amino acids (building blocks that make up the protein) is slightly different in insulins from different species. The insulin that humans make differs from that which pigs and cows make. Porcine insulin has one different amino acid and bovine insulin has three different amino acids. Luckily, these very slight differences do not affect the way in which the insulin works inside the human body.
  • Human insulin is not prepared from human pancreas tissue. It is prepared on a large scale by modern molecular technology. Porcine insulin can be chemically modified so that it resembles human insulin. The letters emp on a bottle of insulin indicate that it has been enzymatically modified from porcine insulin. This type of human insulin is sometimes referred to as semisynthetic human insulin.
  • There are four types of insulin preparation, based on activity: Fast acting, Short acting, Intermediate acting, Long acting. Fast and short acting insulins are clear. Intermediate and long acting insulins are cloudy. In addition, there are numerous pre-mixed insulins, containing fixed proportions usually of a short and an intermediate acting insulin.
  • Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans. It is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is folded and its disulfide bonds are oxidized. It is then transported to the Golgi apparatus where it is packaged into secretory vesicles, where it is processed by a series of proteases to form mature insulin. Mature insulin has 39 less amino acids; 4 are removed altogether, and the remaining 35 form the C-peptide. The C-peptide is abstracted from the center of the proinsulin sequence; the two other ends (the B chain and A chain) remain connected by disulfide bonds.
  • When insulin is purified from bovine or porcine pancreas, all the proinsulin is not fully removed. When some people use these insulins, the proinsulin can cause the body to react with a rash, to resist the insulin, or even to make dents or lumps in the skin at the place where the insulin is injected. In some type 1 diabetics, the autoimmune response which destroyed the islets of Langerhans acted against proinsulin, making them more susceptible to this sort of a side effect. However, sometimes the iatrogenic immune response comes from slight differences between bovine, porcine and human insulin itself.
  • The future of insulin holds many possibilities. Since insulin was first synthesized, diabetics needed to regularly inject the liquid insulin with a syringe directly into their bloodstream. This allows the insulin to enter the blood immediately. For many years it was the only way known to move the intact insulin protein into the body. In the 1990s, researchers began to make inroads in synthesizing various devices and forms of insulin that diabetics can use in an alternate drug delivery system.
  • Manufacturers are currently producing several relatively new drug delivery devices. Insulin pens look like a writing pen. A cartridge holds the insulin and the tip is the needle. The user set a dose, inserts the needle into the skin, and presses a button to inject the insulin. With pens there is no need to use a vial of insulin. However, pens require inserting separate tips before each injection. Another downside is that the pen does not allow users to mix insulin types, and not all insulin is available.
  • Insulin patches are another drug delivery system in development. Patches would release insulin continuously into the bloodstream. Users would pull a tab on the patch to release more insulin before meals.
 General Information
  • Insulin
  • Information on insulin
  • History of insulin
  • Proinsulin
  • International standard for insulin, Human

Manufacturing process

  • Enzymes from higher eukaryotes for industrial biocatalysis
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein production by bovine and human vascular smooth muscle cells
  • Cultured porcine myogenic cells produce insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3
  • Synthesis of insulin from natural and synthetic A and B chains
  • Manufacturing process of insulin
  • Diosynth manufacturing process of porcine insulin
  • Insulin production

Functions and Properties

  • Molecular cloning of the porcine acid-labile subunit (ALS)
    of the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex
  • The crystallization and partial characterization of porcine Trypsin
  • Effects of porcine stress syndrome
  • Liquid transport properties of porcine tracheal epithelium
  • Molecular cloning and regulation of porcine SULT2A1
  • The Effects of porcine somatotropin and dietary lysine
  • Survival and maturation of microencapsulated porcine
    neonatal pancreatic cell clusters
  • Albumin binding of acylated insulin (NN304) does not deter action to stimulate glucose uptake
  • Gastric motor and cardiovascular effects of insulin in dorsal vagal complex of the rat
  • Effects of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin on proliferation and on basal
  • Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte
  • Insulin regulates milk production and mammary gland
  • Screening enteroviruses for beta-cell tropism using foetal porcine beta-cells
  • Separation and characterization of acid-induced insulin transformation products

Company Profiles

  • ALPCO Diagnostics
  • Beta Innovative Pharmaceutical Technology
  • Diosynth Biotechnology
  • Mercodia
  • Microislet Inc.
  • ProSpec-Tany TechnoGene LTD
  • Revivicor
  • Setushree Enterprises
  • Wockhardt UK


  • Consultants & Resumes


  • Porcine hepatocyte cell recovery for the treatment of humen liver disease
  • Control of porcine circovirus diseases
  • Counter measures to prevent the porcine respiratory disease complex
  • Preventing porcine endogenous retrovirus transmission in xenograft tissues
  • Mixed infections with different chlamydia strains and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
  • Prevention of retrovirus production in porcine organs for xenotransplantation


  • Accumulation of topically applied porcine insulin in the retina and optic nerve in normal and diabetic rats
  • Insulin in oral immune tolerance
  • Very pure porcine insulin in clinical practice
  • The chromatography of insulin in urea-containing buffer
  • Insulin- A final push in the cure for diabetes
  • Production of prostaglandins by porcine preovulatory follicular tissues
  • Use of porcine serum in lymphocyte culture


  • Method of cloning porcine animals
  • Isolated porcine pancreatic cells for use in treatment of diseases characterized by insufficient insulin activity
  • Porcine E-selectin
  • Stabilized porcine growth hormone
  • Isolation and culture of porcine hepatocytes
  • Transdermal insulin
  • Acylated insulin
  • Insulin derivatives
  • Porcine growth hormone analogs, and compositions

 Suppliers and Buyers

  • Selling leads of Porcine
  • Healen Ingredients Ltd.
  • Foreign exporters and manufacturers of porcine
  • Nature's Thyme
  • Buying leads of porcine
Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Mouse anti-human insulin monoclonal antibody
  • Insulin, Porcine
  • Pork Act rapid
  • Insulin, Porcine-data sheet
  • Insulin, Pork
  • Insulin from hog pancreas


  • An auto regulatory process for androgen production in rat thecal-interstitial cells
  • Conversion of proinsulin to insulin
  • Insulin synthesis, secretary competence, and glucose utilization are sensitized by transgenic yeast hexokina
  • Incomplete processing of proinsulin to insulin
  • High-throughput determination of protein degradation using the nanostream CL system
  • Regulation of Porcine Granulosa Cell Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein by Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Detection and in vitro and in vivo characterization of porcine circovirus DNA from a porcine-derived commercial pepsin product
  • Recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin
  • Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the polymerase chain reaction technique


  • Overall market of bovine, porcine and human insulin
  • The key to success in biotechnology
  • Comparison of metabolic control and insulin antibody production
  • Human insulin to rule the roost
  • Nutritional and developmental roles of insulin-like growth factors between species
  • Step forward for islet transplantation in diabetes patient
  • Dermal fillers revolution
  • Minimal residues of porcine reproductive and respiratory
    syndrome virus in pig carcases and Boar Semen
  • Effects of porcine small intestinal submucosa on elution characteristics of gentamicin-impregnated plaster of Paris
  • Porcine proliferate enteropathy
  • The Romanian pork market


  • Mercodia Porcine insulin ELISA
  • Anti-insulin, clone MAB 1
  • Caninsulin
  • Porcine insulin
  • Insulin ultrasensitive EIA
  • Vetinsulin
  • Trypsin, from porcine pancreas


  • IgE-mediated allergy to recombinant human insulin in a diabetic
  • Alternative insulin for diabetic dogs
  • Porcine genomic sequencing initiative
  • Insulin market report
  • Microislet, Inc.- Company report
  • Fraunhofer USA - Company report
  • Immunohistochemical identification of porcine respiratory coronavirus antigen in the lung of conventional pigs
  • Development of one-cell porcine embryos to the blastocyst stage in simple media
  • Experimental analysis of flocculant treatments of organic waste
    from swine production
  • Retrospective study of porcine circovirus 2 infection in Japan
  • PCR assay for detecting porcine cytomegalovirus
  • Secondary transmission in porcine cysticercosis


  • Avoiding insulin errors
  • Guidelines for insulin and insulin therapy
  • Guidelines for insulin selection
  • Pharmacist's guide to insulin preparations
  • Learning about pigs
  • FAQ about porcine insulin

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