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  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D electrophoresis) is a powerful and widely used method for the analysis of complex protein mixtures extracted from cells, tissues, or other biological samples.
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis was first introduced by P. H. O'Farrell and J. Klose in 1975. In the original technique, the first-dimension separation was performed in carrier ampholyte-containing polyacrylamide gels cast in narrow tubes.
  • A large and growing application of 2-D electrophoresis is "proteome analysis." Proteome analysis is "the analysis of the entire PROTEin complement expressed by a genOME".
  • The analysis involves the systematic separation, identification, and quantification of many proteins simultaneously from a single sample. Two-dimensional electrophoresis is used in this technique due to its unparalleled ability to separate thousands of proteins simultaneously.
  • 2-D Gel Technology has had profound impact on proteomic research over the years. Informatics support brought a new dimension to 2D gels and associated technologies. But with advent of new and emerging technologies, it will be interesting to observe the trends of 2D gel technology in the years to come. Here we review 2D gel technology and its applications besides looking at the future scope of 2D gels in the post genome era.
  • The separation of proteins based on both molecular charge and size, done by combining the processes of isoelectric focusing (IEF) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), makes it possible to effectively separate thousands of proteins using a single gel. This powerful technique, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) enables scientists to isolate single or multiple protein targets with a high degree of sensitivity.
  • Proteins resolved by 2DE can be identi¢ed based on unique attributes that are measured by MS. These attributes are determined from analysis of peptides generated by proteolytic digestion of the protein of interest.
  • Proteomics is a field that is younger than DNA sequencing and although applications are more limited, the impact of the technology could prove to be enormous. The industry is growing more by a diffusion process as the technology gradually replaces older laboratory methods.
  • Applications of 2-D electrophoresis include proteome analysis, cell differentiation, detection of disease markers, monitoring therapies, drug discovery, cancer research, purity checks, and microscale protein purification.
  • Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis can be time-consuming and labour intensive, but its value to proteomics research means that the market for these products will more than double by 2010.
  •  Right now, 2D gel electrophoresis generates $405.7 million a year worldwide with annual increases of 12.8%, according to Frost & Sullivan.2 By 2010, revenues should hit $717.2 million. GE Healthcare (formerly Amersham Biosciences) and Bio-Rad currently hold 65% of the market.
Properties And Function
  • Advances in Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental signatures in proteome properties
  • Thiol Modifications in a Snapshots
  •  Global analysis of predicted proteomes: Functional adaptation of physical properties
  • Scoring function
  • Screening for targets via 2D gel electrophoresis
  • Bactriophage T4 Helicase Loader Protein GP59 Functions As Gatekeeper in Origin-Dependent Replication in Vivo
  • Mapping origins (2D gels)
  • Caspase-Dependent Inactivation of Proteasome Function During
    Programmed Cell Death in Drosophila and Man
  • Protein Function and Localization

Company Profiles

  • Genomic Solutions
  • Invitrogen
  • MatTek Corporation
  • Proteome Sciences
  • Syngene
  • Westburg
  • The Gel Company
  • Rhys International

Consultants

  • Pier Carlo Montecucchi
  • Intota
  • Gene
  • M-Scan
  • InnovationsKapital

Technology

  • 2D Gels and bioinformatics - An eye to the future
  • Delta2D
  • High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis of Proteins
  • Protein Image Alignment via Piecewise Affine Transformations
  • Mapping of polyomavirus DNA replicative intermediates by
    two-dimensional gel analysis using chemiluminescent detection
  • Proteomics
  • Amersham

Applications

  • BioInformatics Application Note
  • Application of laser capture microdissection and proteomics in colon cancer
  • Custom Life Sciences Applications
  • Optimal 2D gel proteomic analysis of brain proteins affected by dietary polyphenols.
  •  2D Gel Protein Profiling

Products

  • Syngene Proteomics range
  • Protein Analysis According to GMP
  • The ProteoSeek™ Antibody-Based Albumin/IgG Removal Kit
  • New Dimensions for 2D Gel Electrophoresis
  • a2DEoptimizer Product
  • DSM Nutritional Products
  • ProteomeLab™ PF 2D Protein Fractionation System
  • 1D – 2D Protein Gel Excision System
  • Perfect 2D Gels

Production And Processing

  • Two_Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
  • 2D Gel Sample Preparation
  • Sample Preparation Guidelines for 2-D Gel Electrophoresis
  • Harvard Center for Environmental Health Proteomics Facility
  • 2-D Electrophoresis
  • Protocol for Preparation of Coomassie G-250-stained 2D Gel Spots for In-gel Trypsin Digestion

 

Projects
  • Proteome Research Information Management Environment
  • Neurobiology And Anatomy
  • Proteineer
  • Student Projects 2006
  • The Open2Dprot Proteomics Project for n-Dimensional Protein Expression Data Analysis
  • Proteome analysis by twodimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry: strengths
    and limitations
  • Gene expression pro¢ling: monitoring transcription and translation products using DNA microarrays and proteomics
  • Proteome Center Rostock
  • Research Projects

Analysis

  • 2D Gel Electrophoresis Training
  • Comparison of Image Processing Methods Used in Matching 2D Electrophoresis Images
  • Correlation analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein patterns and biological variables
  • A spot filtering tool to facilitate image analysis of 2D gels
  • Melanie
  • 2D Gel Electrophoresis at the PSAL
  • A “High-Performance”2D Gel Scanner
  • Mapping of polyomavirus DNA replicative intermediates by
    two-dimensional gel analysis using chemiluminescent detection

Market

  • 2D gel electrophoresis market heading for boom?
  • Emerging Market for Protein Microarrays Shows Strong Growth
  • Proteomics Challenges And Possibilities in Finland
  • Proteomics market to reach $17.5 billion by 2009
  • Protein Expression Analysis Report

Patent

  • Device for Metering Liquid or Gel Productss
  • Integrated 2D Gel Electrophoresis Methods and System
  • International Application published Under the Patent Coorporation Treaty
  • Methods and Device for Carrying out 2D Electrophoresis in Lerge Gels
  • Model for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Diagnostic assay for stroke

Software Providers

  • BioNumerics 2D
  • DECODON GmbH
  • Dymension
  • Melanie
  • 2-D Gel Analysis Software
  • ProFINDER
  • Progenesis 2D gel image analysis software suite
  • Progenesis

Safety And Guidelines

  • The Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence
  • InnoMed's Drug Safety Database Goes Live
  • Enterococci in Foods Functional and Safety Aspects
  • 2 Dimensional Electrophoresis Sample Preparation Guidelines
  • Guidelines for Sample Submission and Preparation for 2-D Electrophoresis
  • Delta2D
  • Melanie

Reports

  • Proteomic Changes in Bovine Heart Mitochondria With Age
  • NextGen Group PLC
  • Proteomics & Mass Spectrometry in biological research
  • Gel Imaging and Analysis Systems
  • Defining the Mandate of Proteomics in the Post-Genomics Era

 

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