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  • Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal that occurs naturally as a component of certain rocks, soil, coal and oil, and volcanic dust. Beryllium minerals have been known since ancient times as the gemstones emerald, aquamarine, and beryl. Compounds of beryllium are either white or colorless and do not have a particular smell. Because it is an element, beryllium does not degrade nor can it be destroyed.
  • Beryllium is a very light, strong metal with a high melting point of 1,280oC, which is resistant to acids and has a high thermal conductivity. These properties make it useful in a number of applications as a metal, as part of an alloy or as a ceramic. However, high processing costs restrict the use of beryllium to applications where there are no practical alternatives, or where performance is critical.
  • At its mining site in Delta, Utah, Brush Wellman treats bertrandite ore using a counter-current extraction process to produce beryllium sulfate, BeSO4. A second route, using the Kjellgren-Sawyer process, treats the beryl ore and provides the same beryllium sulfate intermediate. The intermediates from the two ore extraction processes are combined and fed to another extraction process. This extraction process removes impurities solubilized during the processing of the bertrandite and beryl ores and converts the beryllium sulfate to beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2. The beryllium hydroxide is either sold, or sent off-site to either be converted to beryllium fluoride, BeF2, which is then catalytically reduced to form metallic beryllium, converted to Beryllium oxide, or converted to beryllium alloys.
  • Beryllium metal has low ductility, so the beryllium fabrication process implies powder metallurgical techniques. Beryllium ingots are mechanically ground to powder of 56-30m in size. Powder is used for Beryllium compacts and construction materials. Isostatic pressing and vacuum hot pressing or cold press and sinter methods are used to consolidate Beryllium powder into beryllium metal products.
  • Beryllia is produced by thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide. Then oxide is sintered, ground and dissolved in acid solution for purification. Then using traditional ceramic technology (dry or semidry pressing, slip casting) specific items are moulded and sintered. Beryllia products may be metallized by overlay of different configuration.
  • Beryllium is particularly well suited for use as a structural material in space technology as it is the lightest structural metal known. Because of its combination of low weight, high stiffness and certain mechanical properties, such as a precise elastic limit, and transparency to x-rays
    and other high-energy electromagnetic radiation, beryllium is an excellent material for use in optical components and precision instruments.
  • Beryllium has physical and chemical properties, such as its stiffness, high resistance to corrosion from acids, and high thermal conductivity, that make it useful for various applications in its alloy, metallic, and oxide forms. Beryllium-copper alloys average about 70 percent of annual U.S. consumption on a beryllium metal equivalent basis. The alloys, most of which contain approximately 2 percent beryllium, are used in a wide variety of applications but mainly in electrical and electronic components, aerospace, and defense.
  • The United States is the world's largest producer of beryllium-containing ores and concentrates (bertrandite). Most of the beryllium- containing ores and concentrates (beryl) produced outside the United States are from Kazakhstan and Russia.
  • Yearend American Metal Market published prices for selected beryllium products were as follows: 99 percent beryllium metal powder, $492 per pound; beryllium vacu-um-cast ingot, $421 per pound; beryllium-aluminum alloy, $260 per pound; beryllium-copper master alloy, $160 per pound of contained beryllium; beryllium oxide, $100 per pound; and beryllium-copper strip, $8.90 per pound. The Metal Bulletin published price for beryl ore ranged from $75 to $80 per short ton unit of contained BeO.
  • The recycling or reuse of beryllium-bearing old scrap is minimal. The recycling efficiency would have been higher if not for the lack of a concerted program to reuse beryllium from its major end use, beryllium-related electrical and electronic components manufactured from beryllium-copper alloys.
General Information
  • Human Health Fact Sheet
  • Beryllium Overview
  • Beryllium
  • The Story of Beryllium
  • Aluminum & Lead in Seawater
  • Beryllium Network
  • World beryllium ore production

Processing

  • The extraction of Beryllium and aluminium from aqueous sulphate solutions
  • Beryllium determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
    spectrometry
  • Beryllium Manufacturing
    Processes
  • Beryllium Processing

Company Profiles

  • ABC Metals, Inc
  • American Beryllia Corporation
  • Brush Engineered Materials
  • NGK Berylco
  • Ningbo Beryllium Metal Co Ltd

Consultants

  • Intota
  • SBM
  • Dydek
  • EngNet
  • Beryllium Consultant Network
  • Peter W. Harben Inc
  • J.E.I. Metallurgical, Inc

Applications

  • Cleaning Copper Beryllium
  • Copper Beryllium Finger Strips
  • Beryllium
  • Beryllium-copper alloys
  • Clinical Application of Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Testing
  • Beryllium Chalcogenide Alloys for Visible light emitting and Laser diodes
  • Beryllium (CAS No. 7440-41-7) and Beryllium Compounds
  • X-Ray detector windows Clock gears Sparkless Tools
  • High Heat Flux Applications
  • Using Beryllium and Polypropylene-Aluminium Absorbers to Measure the TBR-1 Tokamak Electron Temperature

Production

  • Beryllium Production In 2002
  • Beryllium Production in 2004
  • Beryllium Production in 2005
  • Beryllium Production in 2006
  • Domestic survey data and tables and the world production table for the year 2003
  • Domestic survey data and tables and the world production table for the year 2004
  • Domestic survey data and tables and the world production table for the year 2005

Products

  • Antenna Contacts
  • Battery Contacts
  • Beryllium Beam Pipes
  • Beryllium Copper
  • Brazing Copper Beryllium
  • Burn-in & Test Sockets
  • EMI Shielding
  • Memory Card Connectors
  • Modular Jacks
  • Power Connectors
  • Processor Sockets
  • SIM Card Connectors
  • Beryllium Window Products
  • Diffusion Bonded Beryllium X-Ray Window Assembly Specification IS-50M
  • Synchrotron Products

Projects

  • Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program
  • JET ITER-like Wall Project
  • Beryllium Alloy Exposures in Military Aerospace Applications
  • Safe Methods for Radioactive Beryllium Waste Decontamination
  • Sampling Methods for Removable
    Beryllium Surface Contamination
  • A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans
  • A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans
  • Ceramic Technology for Beryllium Oxide

Technology

  • Beryllium
  • Spectrolaser 1000HR
  • Technology for Real-Time Measurement of Surface and Airborne Beryllium
  • Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Materials and process technology
  • New and Emerging Technology for Real Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring
  • Occupational Medicine Surveillance in the Beryllium industry
Plant
  • Kazatomprom Beryllium Plant
  • Ohio production plant
  • Ottawa County selected for beryllium plant
  • Ulba Metallurgical Plant

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Beryllium Solid
  • Copper Beryllium Wrought Alloy
  • Radioactive Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Beryllium metal in massive form
  • Beryllium Boride
  • Gold Beryllium
  • Safety data for beryllium
  • Beryllium

Patent

  • Beryllium Floating Process
  • High tungsten, silicon-aluminum dental alloy
  • Hydrometallurgical process for the production of beryllium
  • Porous Beryllium
  • Texture less Forging of Beryllium
  • High Thermal Conductivity Substrate
  • Method for welding beryllium

Properties & Functions

  • Chemical and Physical Information
  • General Properties of Beryllium
  • The Radiochemistry of Beryllium
  • The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments
  • The Histochemical Detection of Beryllium
  • Electronic properties of small neutral and charged beryllium clusters
  • Properties of Beryllium Loaded Plastic Films
  • Growth and Properties of Beryllium Hexaluminate Crystals
  • Magnetic Properties of Copper Beryllium
  • Properties List of Beryllium
  • Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Oxide and Beryllium Oxide from 298 to 1,200 °K'
  • Beryllium’s Unique Properties
  • Two-electron properties for the beryllium atom

Grades

  • ITER Technical Basis
  • Technical Memorandum
  • Yearend Average Beryllium Metal Price
  • Manual for Procedures and Kit Description For Determination of Beryllium Particulates
  • Pure Beryllium Grades and Uses at a Glance
  • Cuinmet Typical Analysis
  • Beryllium Compounds Grades

Suppliers

  • Beryllium Suppliers
  • Belmont Metals Inc
  • Beryllium Copper Suppliers
  • Suppliers of Beryllium
  • Noah technologies
  • American Elements
  • Noah Tecnologies for Beryllium Sulfate
  • Beryllium Chemical Suppliers
  • Noah Tecnologies for metal
  • Alfa Aesar Johnson Matthey GmbH & Co KG
  • Noah Technologies for Beryllium Oxalate
  • Spectrum Chemicals for Berylium Oxide
  • Texas for Beryllium Nitrate
  • Nicro Alloys Company Pvt Ltd
  • Fox Chemicals

Buyers

  • Beryllium Copper India
  • Indian Importers & Buyers
  • Vijay Commercial House

Safety & Hazards

  • SLAC Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program
  • Beryllium Research
  • Toxological Profile for Beryllium
  • Safety and Health Topics
  • Healthy Drinking waters for Rhode Islanders
  • Division of Toxicology ToxFAQsTM
  • Methods for the Determination of
    Hazardous Substances

Markets

  • U.S Geological Survey in 2006
  • U.S Geological Survey in 2005
  • Brush Engineered Materials Inc.
  • National Security Assessment of the
    U.S. Beryllium Industry
  • World Supply and Production
  • Argonne National laboratory

Report

  • US Clean Air Act Amend. 1990
  • DataChem
  • Determination of Metallic Beryllium and Beryllium Carbide in Beryllium Metal
  • Experimental Investigation of Beryllium Mobility
  • Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000
  • Office of Strategic Planning Analysi
  • Beryllium Report
  • Beryllium Health and Safety Committee
  • Report on Beryllium and Beryllium
    Compounds
  • Report on Screening for Beryllium Sensitization and Disease
  • Former Florida Plant Workers Report
     

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