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  • Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. This essential is classified as nonpolar. Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids. Its derivative S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) serves as a methyl donor. Methionine plays a role in the biosynthesis of cysteine, carnitine, and taurine (by the transsulfuration pathway), lecithin production, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and other phospholipids. Improper conversion of methionine can lead to atherosclerosis.
  • Methionine is one of only two amino acids encoded by a single codon (AUG) in the standard genetic code (tryptophan, encoded by UGG, is the other). The codon AUG is also significant, in that it carries the "Start" message for a ribosome to begin protein translation from mRNA. As a consequence, methionine is incorporated into the N-terminal position of all proteins in eukaryotes and archaea during translation, although it is usually removed by post-translational modification.
  • Enzymes involved in methionine biosynthesis are
    aspartokinase
    β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
    homoserine dehydrogenase
    homoserine acyltransferase
    cystathionine-γ-synthase
    cystathionine-β-lyase
    methionine synthase
  • Racemic methionine can be synthesized from diethyl sodium phthalimidomalonate, (C6H4(CO)2NC(CO2Et)2), by alkylation with chloroethylmethylsulfide, ClCH2CH2SCH3 followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation. High levels of methionine can be found in sesame seeds, Brazil nuts, fish, meat, and some seeds. Most fruit and vegetables contain very little; however, some have significant amounts, such as spinach, potatoes, and boiled corn.
  • The fine chemicals industry is turning increasingly to biological synthesis routes to fulfill the rapidly growing demand for enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals1. The rapidly changing product demands that are typical for chiral intermediates, however, can limit the ability of biocatalysis to compete with other technologies. One reason is that enantioselectivity is often substrate-dependent, with the consequence that available enzymes are only useful for a limited spectrum of products. Even slight modifications in the chiral product can necessitate a new search for a suitable biocatalyst.
  • DL-methionine is the only sulphur containing amino acids. It is used as dietary component in the poultry and animal feed. It is essential nutrient and lipotropic agent. It is used widely in feed mixes. It is essential component in human nutrition, as it is not synthesized by the human body and is used as feedstuff for broilers. It plays an important role in biological methylations. DL-methionine is in the form of platelets and is soluble in dilute acids, alkalies. It is used in poultry feed as an essential nutrient and lipotropic agent. It is added to the feed at a rate of 0.1-0.2%.
  • DL-Methionine is industrially produced using B-methyl mercaptopropionaldehyde sodium cyanide, methanol and ammonia. DL-Methionine is produced on a large scale by chemical synthesis. Methyl mercaptan is reacted with acrylein to produced beta methyl thiopropionaldehyde, which is reacted with hydrogen cyanide to produce alpha hydroxy gamma methyl thio butyro nitrile, which on treatment with ammonia followed by hydrolysis yields methionine.
  • A new process has been developed which utilizes an ebgineered strain of yeast that eliminates the need to provide a source of methionine, an expensive nucleic acid derivative normally synthesized in the body. It is widely used in europeas an antidepressant. In young, healthy people, SAM is well distributed throught the body as a result of its synthesis from methionine by enzymes using ATP. Using this method results in the overproduction of SAM without the need to supply the host with a source of methionine, Since the host can synthesize this amino acid on its own. SAM is then overproduced during a simple fermentation process.   SAM is available as an over- the- counter dietary supplement and has been used in the treatment of depression,  liver disease, chronic fatigue syndrome and migraine headaches.
 General Information
  • Methionine
  • Methionine - 3D Molecular Model
  • Methionine - Formula
  • Methionine - Amino Acid

Production and Processing

  • Production of dl-Methionine
  • Production of L-Methionine
  • New Manufacturing Method for Methionine and
  • Processing of the Initiation Methionine from Proteins
  • Amino Acids Production
  • Manufacturing Process of Methionine

Functions

  • Functions of methionine
  • Elucidation of the function of type 1 human methionine aminopeptidase during cell cycle progression
  • Methionine catabolism in Arabidopsis cells
  • The yeast peptide-methionine sulfoxide reductase functions as an antioxidant in vivo
  • Effect of Methionine and Aflatoxin on Immune Function in Weanling Pigs
  • Efficiency of Dietary Methionine utilization by Young Pigs

Properties

  • Properties of Methionine
  • Characterization of Methionine Export in Corynebacterium glutamicum
  • Effect of Cooking and of Methionine Supplimentation on the Growth Promoting Property of Cowpea Protein
  • Methionine oxidation within the cerebroside-sulfate activator protein
  • Regulation of Methionine Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
  • Properties of Adenosine Triphosphate-L-Methionine

Company Profiles

  • Wuxi Benniu Bio-technology Co.,Ltd.
  • Zest for Life
  • Degussa
  • BI Nutraceuticals
  • Cactus Botanics
  • Pacific Advanced Technologies
  • Shijiazhuang Shixing Amino Acid Co., Ltd
  • Wintersun Chemical
  • Novus International, Inc.,
  • Us Juice

Consultants

  • Agri-Nutrition Consulting, Inc
  • Bilaney Consultants Ltd
  • Bio-Ag Consultants
  • T. K. Narasimha Chary 
  • Flavor Chemcials
  • Gavin L. Sacks
  • Expert in Applied Biochemistry
  • Sally L. Noll
  • R.W. Trewyn

Project

  • Methionine Project
  • Adenosine Coenzyme Vitamin B-12 and S-Adenosine Methionine Project
  • High quality crops by optimizing lysine, methionine and cystine content
  • Phaseolus Genetic Improvement Project
  • Qilu Chemical Industry Park Investment Promotion Bureau 30,000t/y methionine project
  • Splanchnic and Hind Limb Metabolism of Selenium and Methionine in Infection Stressed Ewes

Applications

  • Uses of Methionine and Food Sources
  • Uses of Amino Acid in Foods and Feedstuffs
  • Application of Methionine in Aquafeed Production
  • Accumulation of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Enhances Production of Actinorhodin
  • Utilization of Methionine by the Adult Rat
  • Methionine Requirement and Commercial Methionine Sources in Growing Pigs
  • Application of Amino Acids
  • Effect of  Methionine on the Production of Polycythemia
  • Methionine is used in Poultry Nutrition
  • S-Adenosyl Methionine Used as a food supplement
  • Methionine Requirement of Weanling Large White
    x Landrace Pigs
Technology
  • Method for Selective Methionine Starvation of Malignant Cells
  • Methionine Production Technology
  • Novel gel-free proteomics technology
  • Ferulic Acid Depletion by Cultured Soybean Seedlings under Action of Glucose and Methionine
  • Microarray studies of gene expression in the methionine biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli
  • New Treatment Significantly Increases Conversion of Homocysteine to Methionine for Reducing Human Cardiovascular Disease  Risk
  • Ethylene Production from Methionine
  • New Method for the Determination of Methionine in Proteins

Patent 

  • Process for production of methionine
  • Methionine process
  • Methionine restriction for cancer therapy
  • Methionine recovery processes
  • Method for the crystallization of methionine
  • Therapeutic uses of methionine
  • Method for the production of methionine

Market

  • China Methionine Market
  • Amino acid drive from Degussa
  • Degussa to build the world's largest methionine facility with a capacity of 150,000 tpa
  • Global Methionine Market
  • Sumitomo Chemical Doubles Production of Feed Additive Methionine
  • In 2007, Total Supply of Methionine in china is Forecast to Reach 102,300 Tones

Product

  • Alimet
  • Methionine Capsules
  • DL-Methionine Products
  • List of Methionine Projects
  • L - Methionine Capsules
  • SAMe
  • Twin Lab L- Methionine
  • Vitamins and Minerals

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • DL-methionine
  • Adenosyl-l-Methionine
  • Methilonin
  • Safety data for l-methionine
  • L-Methionine
  • Safety data for dl-methionine
  • 100 mM LMSX (L-Methionine Sulfoximine)

Report

  • Methionine Livestock Summary
  • Soy Best Research News
  • S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine for Treatment of Depression, Osteoarthritis, and Liver Disease
  • Optically pure D-amino acids
  • Corn by-product Diversity and Feeding value to Non-Ruminants
  • Protonation States of Methionine Aminopeptidase
  • Plasma and Urinary Methionine Levels in One-Year-Old Infants after Oral Loading with L-Methionine and Af-Acetyl-L-Methionine1
  • Nutritional Requirements in Methionine + Cystine for White-Egg Laying Hens During the First Cycle of Production
  • FSMIP Final Report

Manufacturers, Suppliers and Buyers

  • Suppliers Directory of Methionine
  • Manufacturers of DL-Methionine
  • Exporters of Methionine
  • Kairos Nutricion C.A.
  • Suppliers of L-Methionine
  • Manufacturers of Methionine
  • Selling Leads of s-adenosyl-l-methionine
  • Methionine Suppliers
  • Trade Leads of Methionine
  • Weifang Jiajia Animal Husbandry R&S Co., Ltd
  • Methionine Buyers List

 Safety and Guides

  • Safety Issues of Methionine
  • Guidelines for Amino Acids
  • Reference Guide for Amino Acids
  • Methionine Supplementation Options

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