Rhenium   
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  • Rhenium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Re and atomic number 75. A silvery-white, rare, heavy, polyvalent transition metal, rhenium resembles manganese chemically and is used in some alloys. Rhenium is obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement and rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting.
  • Rhenium is a silvery white metal, lustrous, and has one of the highest melting points of all elements, exceeded by only tungsten and carbon. It is also one of the most dense, exceeded only by platinum, iridium, and osmium.
  • Rhenium is not found free in nature, and it was only recently that the first rhenium mineral was found. In 1994, Nature published a letter describing a rhenium sulfide mineral found condensing from a fumarole on Russia's Kudriavy volcano. Rhenium is widely spread through the Earth's crust at approximately 1 ppb.
  • Commercial rhenium is extracted from molybdenum roaster-flue gas obtained from copper-sulfide ores. Some molybdenum ores contain 0.002% to 0.2% rhenium. Total world production is between 40 and 50 tons/year; the main producers are in Chile, USA and Kazakhstan.
  • The shortage and high cost of this element strongly limits its applications. However, due to its exceptional high temperature resistance and high melting point, rhenium is quite indispensable in the production of thermo-couples to measure temperatures up to 2500 C, in non-oxidizing atmospheres, as well as in the production of refractory alloys with tungsten, tantalum, niobium, molybdenum, etc.
  • Rhenium is a rare scattered metal which possesses unique physio-chemical properties which enable one to use it in nuclear-power engineering, electrical technology and electronics. This metal has high qualities when dealing with high temperatures and stresses, and this is of great significance in modern technology of high velocities, temperatures and pressures. Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets.
  • This element is used in platinum-rhenium catalysts which in turn are primarily used in making lead-free, high-octane gasoline and in high-temperature super alloys that are used to make jet engine parts. Other uses: Widely used as filaments in mass spectrographs and in ion gauges. An additive to tungsten and molybdenum-based alloys to increase ductility in these alloys. Rhenium catalysts are very resistant to chemical poisoning, and so are used in certain kinds of hydrogenation reactions. Electrical contact material due to its good wear resistance and ability to withstand arc corrosion.
  • There are good prospects for the use of alloys of rhenium in electrical-instrument making inasmuch as rhenium and some of its alloys posses high elastic properties. Thus the introduction of rhenium into cobalt alloys made it possible to solve the problem of improving the hardness and resistance to abrasion and assured the dependability of the cores of electrical instruments under conditions of vibration and increased loads.
  • Demand for rhenium last year was estimated at between 60 and 69 tonnes against supplies of between 58 and 64 tonnes. Supplies included 15 tonnes of stockpile from one of the world's top producers, Kazakhstan. Rhenium is not mined for itself, but is normally recovered as a byproduct of molybdenum sulphide concentrate after it has been separated from copper. Most is sold on long-term contracts. The largest producer is Chile, which is also the world's largest copper producer. Other producers include the United States, China, Russia, Poland, Armenia and Uzbekistan.
  • During 2006, average rhenium metal price, based on U.S. Census Bureau customs value, was about $1,170 per kilogram, about 9% more than that of 2005. Rhenium imports increased by about 44% owing to continued strong demand for super alloys in the gas turbine engine market and improved demand in the catalyst market. Rhenium recovery in the United States decreased by about 13% owing to reduced imports of
    byproduct molybdenum concentrates for roasting in the United States
    .
General Information
  • Rhenium
  • History and sources of Rhenium
  • Description of Rhenium
  • Elemental information of Rhenium
  • Periodic table of Rhenium
  • Rhenium and alloys

Production Process

  • Production process of Rhenium
  • CVD Processing of Rhenium
  • Process and Recovery of Rhenium
  • Liquid kit for Preparation of 188rhenium-etidronate
  • Radionuclidic generators for the production of technetium-99M and Rhenium-188
  • Complexes of Technetium(I) and Rhenium(I) From Radiopharmacy to Photocatalysis
  • Biological evaluation of 188-Rhenium colloids for radiosynovectomy
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods for the Controlled Preparation of Supported Catalytic Materials

Company Profiles

  • Company Annual report - 2014
  • Company product data sheet - 2014
  • ACI Alloys, Inc.
  • Climax Engineered Materials
  • Changsha Asian Light Economic Trade Co. Ltd.
  • ESPI
  • Molybdenum Products, Inc.
  • Molymet
  • Rhenium Alloys, Inc.
  • Ultramet
  • ZhuZhou KETE Industries CO.,Ltd

Consultants

  • Experts in Rhenium
  • The Hendrix Group
  • IPMI
  • Massimiliano Galeazzi
  • Moishe Garfinkle
  • Rafael Espinoza Consulting
  • Robert Hurwitz

Functions

  • Behavior of Rhenium and the Platinum Group Elements during Fractional Crystallization
  • Characterization of W-26% Re Target Material
  • Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material
  • Photoinduced Isomerization and Luminescence of fac-[Re(CO)3(ph2phen)(bpe)]+
  • Radiochemistry of Rhenium
  • Structure of Low-Loss EELS in Rhenium
  • Geochemistry of Rhenium
  • Clusters with a Square Geometry of the Metal Core. Synthesis and X-Ray Characterization of the Novel [Re4( +-H)3(CO)16]& Anion

Properties

  • Allylthiourea Chemistry - 2014
  • Metal Organic compounds - Structure - 2014
  • Properties of Rhenium
  • Rhenium Material Properties
  • Rhenium Mechanical Properties
  • Properties and uses of Rhenium
  • Chemical properties of Rhenium
  • Physical properties of Rhenium
  • Thermophysical properties of Rhenium

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Rembar-Rhenium
  • Rhenium 1000 ppm A/S standard
  • ESPI-Rhenium
  • Rhenium
  • Rhenium powder (99.99%)

Patent 

  • Spherical rhenium powder
  • Rhenium composite
  • Molybdenum-rhenium alloy
  • Recovery of Rhenium
  • Process for isolating Rhenium
  • Method for manufacturing rhenium-containing alloy powder
  • Process for making rhenium-containing alloys
  • Recovery of platinum group metals and rhenium from materials using halogen reagents
  • Process for the recovery of moylbdenum and Rhenium from ores

Projects

  • New Rhenium Radio-pharmaceuticals for the selective imaging and therapy of breast cancer
  • Reduce Manufacturing Costs of Ultra-High Temperature Rhenium Pintle/Throat Combinations
  • An alternative method for producing Rhenium combustion chambers
  • The aquatic behavior of rhenium and molybdenum
  • Organic Transformations with h2-Arene Complexes of Rhenium
  • Rhenium Fabrication Processes
  • Production of Ultra High Strength Rhenium Components for Aerospace Systems
Technology
  • Rhenium Uptake as Analogue for 99Tc by Steel Corrosion Products
  • Analysis of Soluble Rhenium Concentrations in the Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B
  • Development of chemically vapor deposited rhenium emitters of preferred crystal orientation
  • Two-photon excitation of rhenium metal-ligand complexes
  • Rhenium-Selenium-Chlorine Solid Phases
  • Physical foundations of Rhenium-Osmium method
  • Testing of Electroformed Deposited Iridium/Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Rockets
  • Process for Manufacturing Rhenium Rocket Nozzles or Articles
  • Recovery of Radiogenic Osmium-1 87 ~ from Sulfide Copper Ores
  • Novel radioactive technetium and Rhenium chelate complexes for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer

Products

  • Pure Rhenium and products
  • ATLAS MDT chamber
  • Tungsten Rhenium thermocouples
  • Rhenium heptoxide
  • Rhenium Metal Powder and Chemicals
  • Molybdenum-Rhenium Alloys
  • Rhenium metal powder
  • Rhenium metallic pellet
  • Radiochemical sodium perrhenate solution
  • Rhenium metallic bar
  • ITM-Rhenium-PTA
  • Rhenium metallic sheet
  • Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys

Applications

  • Rhenium Alloy Lamps
  • Rhenium Sulfide Colloids Intended for Lymphoscintigraphic Application
  • Rhenium-188(Sn)HEDP for Treatment of Osseous Metastases
  • Rhenium-188 for magnetic targeted radiotherapy
  • Coronary Radiation Therapy with Liquid Rhenium-186
  • Rhenium fac tricarbonyl bisimine complexes: biologically useful fluorochromes for cell imaging applications
  • Medical applications of advanced materials
  • Applications of Rhenium
  • Uses of Rhenium

Market

  • Rhenium - Australia - 2014
  • Rhenium Statistics - 1963 to 2012
  • Metal Prices in the United States Through 2010
  • Overview of Rhenium market
  • Rhenium is discovered quite late
  • Demand for rhenium at breaking point
  • World overview of Rhenium market
  • Market overview of mining industry
  • Phenium market prices drop to lower levels
  • Prices for rhenium ease, stabilize in US

Report

  • U.S. Rhenium Metal Powder Price
  • Amino acid radicals in Rhenium-modified copper proteins
  • Responses of plants to Rhenium
  • Rhenium statistics
  • Rhenium market in 2002
  • Rhenium market in 2003
  • Rhenium market in 2004
  • Rhenium market in 2005
  • Rhenium market upto 2004
  • Rhenium market upto 2005
  • Rhenium market upto 2006
  • Rhenium Market upto 2011
  • Rhenium Compilation - 2012
  • Rhenium Market upto 2012
  • Rhenium Market upto 2013
  • Rhenium Market upto 2014
  • Rhenium Market upto 2015

Manufacturers, Suppliers and Buyers

  • Global suppliers of Rhenium
  • Rhenium Hexafluroide CAS 10049-17-9 suppliers
  • Rhenium oxide CAS 12036-09-8
  • Rhenium, metal CAS 7440-15-5
  • Selling leads of Rhenium
  • Rhenium Silicide CAS 12038-66-3 suppliers
  • Rhenium Sulfide CAS 12038-64-1 suppliers
  • Rhenium metal suppliers
  • Buying leads of Rhenium

Equipment Suppliers

  • Laxmi En-Fab
  • Furnace manufacturers
  • Power generators suppliers directory
  • Chemical reactors suppliers
  • Scrubber Manufacturers

Safety and Guides

  • Radiation safety manual
  • Aquatic environment protection: Analytical methods
  • Marrow Toxicity and Radiation Absorbed Dose Estimates from Rhenium- 186-Labeled Monoclonal
    Antibody
  • General guide for Rhenium

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