Wind turbine blades
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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Wind turbine blades are a key component of a wind turbine. Wind turbines are machines that turn wind energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted to electricity. Large utility-scale wind turbines use rotating wind turbine blades to generate that power.
  • Utility-scale wind turbines have over 8,000 parts. The turbines rotate around either a horizontal axis or a vertical axis. Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) are more common than vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). An HAWT can be up to 50 percent more efficient than a VAWT, because of design and location factors.
  • The HAWT evolved from the European four-bladed wood and fabric windmills. Modern large wind turbines use three blades because, aerodynamically, an odd number of blades is more efficient. Each wind turbine blade is approximately 65 to 130 feet (20 to 40 m) long.
  • Over the last 20 years, we have seen the standard blade size grow from 7.5m to well over 60m. In the future these tools that gather energy from the wind will only be limited in size and performance by materials and our innovation.
  • The blades are produced from strong laminated materials that have a high strength-to-weight ratio. Balsa, wood, fiberglass and carbon fiber can all be molded into airfoils. The wind turbine blades are painted light gray to blend in with clouds.
  • Adjusting the blade position provides greater control, allowing the wind turbine blades to reap the maximum amount of wind energy. The blades are always perpendicular to the wind, so they receive power throughout the entire rotation. A HAWT rotor component, including the wind turbine blades, makes up approximately 20% of the cost of manufacturing a utility-scale wind turbine.
  • Wind turbine blade static testing is employed to confirm required load profiles and validate blade designs, commonly subjecting blades to 150% of their rated
    loads. Accurately testing blades to failure requires high-force, high-precision and impact-worthy test equipment.
  • It must be demonstrated that the blade can withstand both the ultimate loads and the fatigue loads to which the blade is expected to be subjected during its designed service life. In other words, the blade should not fail before the end of its expected service life.
  • MTS wind turbine blade fatigue test solutions apply automated cyclic loading to wind turbine blades at resonant frequency to excite the blade and achieve
    the desired strain rate. This offers a productive and accurate means for meeting the fatigue testing demands of International Electrotechnical Commission
    (IEC) Technical Specification 61400-23.
  • Most wind turbine blades are fabricated using reinforced
    fiberglass composite materials with epoxy or vinyl ester matrices. Single or double shear
    webs are usually combined with planks of unidirectional laminates to form integral I-5 beam or box beam structures that carry the loads along the blade's span.
  • As demand for renewable energy increases, wind turbine blades are increasing in size, leading to longer blades that can achieve larger swept areas. However, gravity-induced bending loads on blades create dramatic increases in dynamic stress, heightening market demand for a material that reduces blade mass while retaining strength.
  • The value of the global composite blade market is estimated at €4 billion in 2011, of which around €1.5 billion was raw materials.
  • Since oil leakage can penetrate into the blade laminate layers and cause the blade to come apart over time, leaks inside blades need to be cleaned up and controlled. Oil leaks on the outside of blades can attract dirt and bug build up causing reduced performance.
  • Visible blade cracks are the easiest way to see that a blade has problems. All cracks should be reported to ensure that the crack can be repaired before it becomes a bigger problem. As cracks tend to propagate, the repairs only get more expensive with time. Cracks can allow water to enter the blade, which can cause damage in freeze-thaw climates.
  • As lightning strikes can cause various amounts of damage to wind turbines, this is a focal point for engineers working to improve blade survivability. Typical methods of controlling lightning consist of bare metal pucks near the tips of the blades.
  • As ice build up on blades can be very dangerous, it is best practice to stay clear of the machine until all the ice is gone. Ice reduces the efficiency of the airfoil, and can unbalance the rotor.
  • Blades must be balanced so they do not cause excessive loads on the rest of the turbine or tower. Just like the wheels on a car, rotating blades cause repetitive swinging loads if they are not balanced.
  • Some finish work can cause you to lose energy production, such as brush marks in the gel coat on the leading edges of blades. Unless the aerodynamic engineers built these brush marks into the airfoil they shouldn't be there. You may want to take time to sand them out of your new blades. It is the same as having clean blades versus dirty blades.
  • Wind Turbine Blades (WTB)
  • Evolution of WTB
  • Today's wind energy
  • Video on WTB


  • NDE Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades Using Line Scanning Thermography
  • Wind Turbine Blade & Generator Technologies
  • Lightning Protection for
    Wind Turbine Blades
  • Wind turbine blade analysis using ultrasonic guided waves
  • A Smart Wind Turbine Blade Using Distributed Plasma Actuators for Improved Performance
  • Test and demonstration of a new-technology 50 KW WTB on a high-wind site
  • Design Blades of a Wind Turbine Using Flexible Multibody Modelling
  • Computational fluid dynamics of WTB at various angles of attack and low reynolds number


  • Structural Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades
  • Structural design and analysis of a 10 MW wind turbine blade
  • Winglet Design and Analysis for Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
  • Modal Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades
  • Stability Analysis of Parked Wind Turbine Blades
  • Static and Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades Subject to Cold Weather Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis
  • Applied Modal Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades
  • Design and Finite Element Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine blade
  • Wind Turbine Blade Analysis using the Blade Element Momentum Method


  • Wind Turbine Blade Design
  • Wind Turbine Rotor Design
  • Wind Turbine Blade Structural Engineering
  • Size effect on WTB's design drivers
  • Innovative Design Approaches for Large Wind Turbine Blades
  • Wind Turbine Blade Design Optimization
  • Wind Turbine Blade Composites Design
  • Wind turbines blades design
  • Blade design
  • Ontario attracts clean energy manufacturing plants
  • My Turbine Blade Is Bigger Than Your Turbine Blade
  • First wind turbine blade mould in South Africa


  • Measuring the Swept Area of Your Wind Turbine
  • Overview of wind turbine blades
  • Condition Monitoring and Predictive Diagnostics for Wind Turbine Blade Pitch Control Systems
  • Damage Detection in Wind Turbine Blades using two Different Acoustic Techniques
  • An Analytical Model to Extract
    Wind Turbine Blade Structural Properties for Optimization and Up-scaling Studies
  • Wind turbine
  • Wind turbine blade design


  • Research and Development of Small Wind Turbine Blades
  • Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade
  • Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Workshop
  • Biobased Carbon Fibers for Wind Turbine Blades
  • Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats
  • Research Directions in Wind
    Turbine Blades

Testing of Windmill blades

  • Developments in WTB fatigue testing
  • Subcomponent testing for wind turbine blades
  • Advanced blade testing methods for Wind turbines
  • Full scale testing of wind turbine blade to failure - flapwise loading
  • Wind Turbine Blade Testing Solutions
  • DIY PVC WTB test
  • High speed wind generator blade test
  • Testing of WTB


  • List of products
  • Carbon SparPreg
  • AIRSTONE™ Adhesive System
  • Blade Topcoat
  • AIRSTONE™ Infusion System
  • Bladeskyn
  • 3M Wind Polyurethane Filler
  • Ceram Kote 54

Manufacturing process

  • Blade Manufacturing Processes
  • Gurit Materials for Wind Turbine Blades
  • 1.8 Metre diameter wind turbine blades and generator
  • Composite wind  blade engineering and manufacturing
  • Fibre glass wind turbine blade
    manufacturing guide
  • Wind Turbine Blade Composites Design
  • Home Wind energy
  • How to make your own PVC wind turbine blades
Manufacturing plant
  • Manufacturing plant at Spain
  • Another Manufacturing plant at Spain
  • Manufacturing plant at Canada
  • Manufacturing plant at Finland
  • Manufacturing plant at Germany


  • Suppliers of WTB
  • Manufacturers of WTB
  • Selling leads of WTB
  • Supplier from Denmark
  • Supplier from U.K

Raw material & Equipment suppliers

  • Aluminium alloy suppliers
  • Fiber glass suppliers
  • PVC suppliers
  • Wood suppliers
  • Equipment supplier from Europe

Turnkey solution providers

  • Turnkey service provider from Canada
  • Turnkey service provider from Ohio
  • Turnkey service provider from Turkey
  • Turnkey service provider from Washington

Company profiles

  • Company from China
  • Company from Denmark
  • Company from Mumbai
  • Company from Scotland
  • Company from U.K
  • Company from U.S.A
  • Another Company from U.S.A


  • Consultancy from Germany
  • Consultancy from New York
  • Consultancy from U.K
  • Online Consultancy1
  • Online Consultancy2
  • Consultancy from U.S.A
  • Global Wind Turbine Rotor Blade Market by Testing, Material, Blade Size, Regulations & Outlook (2011 – 2016)
  • Moulding wind turbine blades to meet growing US demand
  • Wind Turbine Blades Keep Growing
  • Growth in materials demand for wind turbine blades
  • New Bayer Material Meets Demand for Tougher Turbine Blades
  • Anatomy of a Wind Turbine
  • Lucintel Estimates Double-Digit Growth for Global Wind Blade Market During 2012-17
  • Wind turbine blade production – new products keep pace as scale increases
  • Wind Industry Global Markets
    and Export Potential


  • Optimisation of Wind Turbine Blade Structural Topology
  • 38 Metter Wind Turbine Blade Design Internship Report
  • The Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Wind Turbine Blade
  • Thermoplastic Composite Wind Turbine Blades
  • Basic concepts in Turbomachinery
  • Optimization of Wind Turbine Blade Shapes
  • Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Structures


  • Design studies for twist coupled WTB
  • Experimental studies in WTB using winglets
  • Wind Turbine Blade Efficiency and Power Calculation with Electrical Analogy
  • Case Study of Lightning Damage
    to Wind Turbine Blade
  • Using of composite material in WTB
  • Raptor Acuity and Wind Turbine Blade Conspicuity
  • Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect
  • Compliant blades for wind turbines

Working of Windmill blades

  • Operation & Maintenance of WTB
  • Working of WTB
  • How Wind Power Works
  • How it works

Installation & Repair

  • Wind turbine repair
  • Blade repair
  • Wind Turbine Blade Repair
  • Installation, inspection and maintenance of roto blades
  • Wind Turbine Repair
  • Wind Turbine Blade Services
  • Wind Turbine Blade Repair & Maintanence


  • Protestors “Gift” Tate Modern a 1.5-Ton Wind Turbine Blade
  • Wind turbine blade donated to Tate in protest
  • Brazil’s Aeris Energy To Quadruple Wind-Turbine Blade Production
  • Siemens to manufacture wind turbine blades in Iowa
  • Setting turbine blades a tall task at Lake Winds Energy Park
  • Siemens mulls wind turbine blade production facility in Turkey
  • Wind Turbine Blades Push Size Limits
  • Wind turbine and blade makers grow Corn Belt jobs

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