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  • Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms needle-shaped crystals. Its chemical formula is CaC2O4.
  • Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals, especially in domestic animals such as dogs and cats.
  • The stones form in the urinary bladder in varying size and numbers secondary to infection, dietary influences, and genetics.
  • Calcium oxalate stones form in an acidic to neutral urine.
  • Two types naturally occur, calcium oxalate monohydrate, or whewellite (CaC2O4H2O), and calcium oxalate dihydrate, or weddellite (CaC2O42H2O). Their appearance can be rough, smooth, spiculated, or jackstone.
  • Calcium oxalate stones form more readily in animals with hypercalcaemia, which can caused by Addison's disease or certain types of cancer.
  • Hypercalcaemia results in hypercalciuria, which can also be caused by Cushing's syndrome or hyperparathyroidism.
  • Single crystals of whewellite and weddellite were obtained from urinary calculi.
  • Urinary stone formation is a major example of pathological mineralization.
  • Kinetic analysis of the initial rates were proportional with the relative supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate.
  • A calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth inhibitor has been isolated from human kidney tissue culture medium by using EAE-cellulose batch chromatography followed by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography.
  • COM crystals were grown in urine, in different gels (by the counter diffusion method) and by direct pouring of reagent solutions together.
  • In urine the crystals took several days to grow up to 30- 50 mm in size without any impurities and up to 1 mm in size with addition of calcium chloride and potassium oxalate.
  • The mechanism and kinetics of growth and dissolution of substances constituting renal stones is important for understanding the etiology of urolithiasis and working out the methods of treatment.

 

General Information
  • Information about Calcium Oxalate
  • Types of Crystals
  • Information about bladderstone
  • The crystal structures of whewellite and weddellite: re-examination and comparison

Consultant

  • Consultant from Chennai
  • Consultant from Europe
  • Consultant from Florida
  • Consultant from Indianapolis
  • Consultant from UnitedKingdom
  • Consultant from USA

Process

  • Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth using Algerian medicinal plants
  • Growth and dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals
  • Growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate on uric acid crystals at sustained supersaturation
  • Inhibition of the Crystal Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate by Algae Sulfated Polysaccharide
  • Purification and Characterization of a Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Growth Inhibitor from Human Kidney Tissue Culture Medium

  • Identification of intracellular calcium oxalate crystals in chamelaucium uncinatum

Technology

  • Modification of gel technique for micro-crystals of biomaterials: In situ growth and dissolution studies
  • Measurement of metastability and growth of calcium oxalate in native urine by calcium electrode
  • Kidney Stone Analysis by Nicolet FTIR spectrometer
  • Thermal treatment of whewellite a Thermal analysis and Raman spectroscopic study
  • Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy in Identification of the Composition of the Urinary Stones
  • Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography
  • Weight Loss Determined from Mass Spectrometry Trend Data in a Thermogravimetric/Mass Spectrometer System

 

Guide
  • Handling of Oxalate and Calcium Oxalate by Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells
  • Urine sediment atlas

Functions

  • Managing calcium oxalate scale in the bleach plant
  • Mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells
  • Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate by poly(acrylic acids) with different end-groups
  • A study of primary nucleation of calcium oxalate monohydrate: I-Effect of supersaturation

Patent

  • Methods and composition for detecting and treating kidney diseases associated with adhesion of crystals to kidney cells
  • Manufacture of oxalic acid dihydrate
  • Process of removing calcium oxalate scale

Report

  • Increased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to injured renal tubular epithelial cells in culture
  • Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis in the Canine Patient
  • Direct nucleation of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals onto the surface of living renal epithelial cells in culture
  • Correlation Between Urinary Tract Pure Stone Composition and Stone Morphology on Plain Abdominal Film
  • First Evidence for the Presence of Weddellite Crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica Parenchyma

  • Modern surgical treatment of ureteral calculi
  • Sonography of a Human Jackstone Calculus
  • A modeling study of the role of proteins in calcium oxalate kidney stone formation
  • A quantitative study on the chemical composition of renal stones and their fluoride content from Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India
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