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- Ceramides (pronounced ser-A-mid OR
seramide) are a family of lipid molecules. A
ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid.
- Ceramides are found in high
concentrations within the cell membrane of cells. They are one of
the component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the major
lipids in the lipid bilayer.
- The most well-known functions of
ceramides as cellular signals include regulating the
differentiation, proliferation, programmed cell death (PCD), and
apoptosis (Type I PCD) of cells.
- There are three major pathways of
ceramide generation. The sphingomyelinases
pathway uses an enzyme to break down sphingomyelin in the cell
release ceramide. The de novo pathway creates ceramide from less
- Ceramide generation can also occur
through breakdown of complex sphingolipids that
are ultimately broken down into sphingosine, which is then reused by
reacylation to form ceramide. This latter pathway is termed the
- Ceramides are formed as the key
intermediates in the biosynthesis of all the complex sphingolipids,
in which the terminal primary hydroxyl group is linked to
carbohydrate, phosphate etc.
- The distinctive ceramides in the skin
are derived mainly from glucosylceramide
synthesized in specific organelles termed 'lamellar bodies' in the
- As a bioactive lipid, ceramide has
been implicated in a variety of physiological functions including
apoptosis, cell growth arrest, differentiation, cell senescence, cell
migration and adhesion.
- Ceramides are also produced during the
catabolism of the complex sphingolipids, for
example by the action of one or other of the sphingomyelinases or of
phospholiphase on sphingomyelin in animal tissues as part of the
- Ceramides, like other lipid second
messengers in signal transduction, are produced
rapidly and transiently in response to specific stimuli in order to
target specific proteins.
- Because of its apoptosis-inducing
effects in cancer cells, ceramide has been termed the "tumor
- Several studies have attempted to
define further the specific role of ceramide in the events of cell
death and some evidence suggests ceramide functions upstream of the
mitochondria in inducing apoptosis.
- The lipid ceramide is widely
recognized as being central for the mediation of the cellular stress
response and the regulation of apoptosis in many cells. Ceramide has
been demonstrated to be required for the cellular response to stress
stimuli such as ionizing radiation, UVA-light, heat, and TNF
Biosynthesis and Function.
- Ceramide- Its
Cycles and Physiological Actions.
- Ceramide Complex MSDS.
- MSDS of
- C-8 Ceramide
- Material safety sheet of Ceramide III.
- Ceramide -C6 Msds.
- Ceramide-1-Phosphate .
- Preparation of Ceramide and sphingosine by chemical and biochemical
- Enzymatic production of Ceramide.
- A New take on
- Alzheimer's Disease,
involving lipid toxicity.
- Functional modulation
of mitochondria by Eicosapentaenoic Acid provides protection against
- Ceramide 3 derivatives based on monounsaturated fatty acids.
system for high concentration of ceramide.
- Combinations of ceramide and chemotherapeutic agents for inducing
malt oil containing Vegetable ceramide.
Ceramide-like compounds and therapeutic methods of use.
Ceramide Compositions .
- Enzymatic Synthesis of Ceramides.
- Hair care
compositions comprising ceramide.
- Ceramide Precursor for improving natural epidermis.
- Ceramides, process and their applications in the cosmetic.
formulations suitable for oral administration.
- Compositions related to inhibition of ceramide synthesis.
application of Ceramides.
for maintaining or increasing ceramide levels in skin.
ceramide related compounds.
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- Ceramides and Sphingosines.
- Ceramide in malignant tumors.
of a New Ceramide.
new player in the inflammation-insulin resistance paradigm.
Production in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
- Tips for
maintaining an effective epidermal barrier.
messenger of cell death.
- Quantitation of free ceramides in human platelets.
- Ceramide accumulation
is independent of camptothecin.
- Ceramide synthesis and
metabolism as a target for cancer therapy.
- Apoptotic signal of
Fas is not mediated by ceramide.
- Ceramide and activated
Bax act synergistically to permeablilize the mitochondrial outer
- Radiation &
- Regulation of ceramide
- Perturbation of
sphingolipids metabolism and ceramide production.
transport of chloride and bicarbonate across phospholipid membranes.
- Lipid sorting by
ceramide and consequences for membrane proteins.
- Inverse relationship
between ceramide synthesis and clinical severity in patients with
- Ceramide induces
- Ceramide signaling in
Fenretinide-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.
- Role of Sphingolipids
and Ceramide in pulmonary inflammation in cystic fibrosis.
formation of ROS and ATP depletion.
hydrolysis to ceramide during the execution phase of apoptosis
- Cannabinoids and
ceramide: Two lipids acting hand-by-hand.
- Visualization of
Ceramide channels by transmission electron microscopy.
- Application of
skin-identical Ceramide3 for enhanced skin moisturization.
ceramide-enriched domains in ceramide bilayers.
- Synthetic Ceramide
Analogues as Skin Permeation Enhancers.
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