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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Levulinic acid, or 4-oxopentanoic acid, is a white crystalline keto acid prepared from levulose, inulin, starch, etc., by boiling them with dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acids.
  • Levulinic acid (LA, H8C5O3), or gammaketovaleric acid, is a short chain fatty acid having a
    ketone carbonyl group and an acidic carboxyl group.
  • It is soluble in water, ethanol, and diethyl ether, but essentially insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.
  • Levulinic acid is used in the manufacture of nylons, synthetic rubbers, plastics, and pharmaceuticals.
  • It is a precursor in the industrial production of other chemical commodities such as methyltetrahydrofuran, valerolactone, and ethyl levulinate.
  • Levulinic acid is used in cigarettes to increase nicotine delivery in smoke and binding of nicotine to neural receptors.
  • There are many methods for preparing LA, and the most widely used approach is dehydration of biomass or carbohydrate with acid[
  • Levulinic acid (LA), accessible by the acid-catalysed degradation of biomass, is potentially a very versatile building-block for the synthesis of various (bulk) chemicals for applications like fuel additives, polymer and resin precursors.
  • A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass.
  • The kinetic expressions were used to gain insights into the optimum process condition for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in continuous-reactor configurations.
  • Levulinic acid is a kind of new green platform chemical with wide application. The kinetics of levulinic acid formation from glucose decomposition at high temperature.
  • The levulinic acid was degraded by several techniques.
  • A novel method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was developed for the determination of levulinic acid (LV) in soy sauces.
  • Levulinic acid can be produced from cellulosic biomass through thermo hydrolysis.
  • Levulinic acid can be used as an acidulant in foods and beverages.
  • It is used as an intermediate to manufacture synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides. plastics, rubber, and synthetic fibers. It is used in the manufacture perfumery, food additive, fuel additive,  herbicide, solder flux, stabilizer and printing ink.
  • Levulinic acid and its esters are used as platicizers and solvents in polymer, textiles and coatings.
  • Addition of Levulinic acid into the culture medium greatly increased the molar fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate(3HV) in the copolyester, indicating that Levulinic acid can be utilized as a precursor of 3HV.
  • Levulinic acid is a highly functional platform molecule that can provide a wide variety of useful derivatives such as solvents, monomers and biofuel additives.
  • Large-scale commercialization of the Biofine process could produce levulinic acid for as little as $0.32 per pound, spurring increased demand for LA and its derivatives.
  • Currently, levulinic acid has a worldwide market of about one million pounds per year at a price of $4–6 per pound.
  • Levulinic Acid Identification
  • 4-Oxopentanoic Acid
  • Levulinic acid


  • Levulic acid
  • 4-Oxo-pentanoic acid
  • Ethyl Laevulinate


  • Levulinic acid
  • 4-Ketovaleric acid
  • Levulinic acid - MSDS
  • Levulinic acid MSDS
  • 4-Oxopentanoic acid


  • Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran
  • Determination of levulinic acid in soy sauce by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection
  • Future Fill-ups May Use Paper Mill Waste
  • Bacterial Degradation of Deoxyribose-C14
  • Rapid Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Waste in the Presence of Cyclic Carbonates for Preparing  Levulinic Acid


  • Process for the Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Levulinic Acid or Alkyl Levulinate
  • Process for the dimerisation of levulinic acid, dimers obtainable by such process and esters of such dimers
  • Preparation of levulinic acid esters and formic acid esters from biomass and olefins
  • Method and Apparatus for Production of Levulinic Acid via Reactive Extrusion
  • Process for the Production of Levulinic Acid
  • Production of Levulinic Acid from Carbohydrate - containing Materials
  • Method  for Removal of Levulinic Acid By Microorganisms
  • Stabilization of Levulinic Acid
  • Process for the preparation of storage-stable levulinic acid

Preparation Process

  • Biomass applications for energy generation and chemicals production
  • Exploratory Catalyst-Screening Studies on the Conversion of 5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural and Glucose to Levulinic Acid
  • A Kinetic Study on the Decomposition of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into Levulinic Acid
  • A Kinetic Study on the Conversion of Glucose to Levulinic Acid
  • A Kinetic Study on the Acid-catalysed Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid
  • Experimental and Kinetic Modelling Studies on the Acid-Catalysed Hydrolysis of the Water Hyacinth Plant to Levulinic Acid
  • Kinetics of Levulinic Acid Formation from Glucose Decomposition at High Temperature
  • Wood-Based Biorefinery Potential Applications to Products

Company Profiles

  • Company from México
  • Company Profile
  • Company from Shanghai
  • Company from China.
  • Company from North America
  • Another company from Shanghai
  • Company from Beijing
  • Levulinic Acid Suppliers
  • Distributor
  • Suppliers Catalog
  • Worldwide Suppliers
  • Selling Leads


  • Photodynamic therapy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid: Applications in dermatology
  • Effect of Levulinic Acid on Digestibility, Fatty Acid Production and Microbial Activity in Dairy Heifers and Wethers
  • Diphenolic Acid
  • Effect of Levulinic Acid on the Production of Poly(3-h ydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Ralstonia eutropha KHB-8862
  • Effect of Levulinic Acid on Pigment Biosynthesis in Agmenellum quadruplicatum
  • Levulinic acid used to treat skin cancer
  • Amino Levulinic Acid-Photodynamic Therapy (ALA-PDT) for Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome


  • Conversion of Low-Cost Biomass Wastes to Levulinic Acid and Derivatives
  • Biomass Derivatives:A Sustainable Source of Chemicals
  • Maine Biomass Refinery Market Study


  • Cost - Effective Bioprocess Technologies for Production of Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass
  • Technology Will Produce Highly Valuable Chemicals and Gasoline Additives from Cellulosic Wastes
  • Production Scale-Up of Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors
  • Building polymers from biomass: polyesters from levulinic acid
  • Synthesis of Branched Methyl Hydroxy Stearates Including an Ester from Bio-Based Levulinic Acid


  • Experts in Levulinic Acids
  • Consultant from Minneapolis
  • Consultant from Paris
  • Consultant from California


  • Levulinic Acid
    to MTHF/Wheat Milling By-Products Utilization
  • Expression of 5-amino levulinic acid induced photodynamic damage to the thylakoid membranes in dark sensitized by brief pre-illumination
  • Thermocatalytic Cellulose Transformation with Forming of Levulinic Acid
  • Conversion of Biomass Wastes to Levulinic Acid and Derivatives
  • Kinetics of the Acid Catalyzed Conversion of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furadehyde and Levulinic Acid
  • Review of Levulinic Acid (LA) HRRC Activity

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