Retinal implant
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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • A retinal implant is a biomedical implant technology currently being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide.
  • Retinal implant is an electrode/ photo electrode array that is implanted adjacent to the retina.
  • The implant is meant to partially restore useful vision to people who have lost their vision due to degenerative eye conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or macular degeneration.
  • There are two types of retinal implants currently in clinical trials: Epiretinal Implants (on the retina) and Subretinal Implants (behind the retina).
  • Retinal implants provide subject with low resolution images by electrically stimulating retinal cells. Such images may be sufficient for restoring specific visual abilities, such as light perception and object recognition.
  • Clinical reports to date have demonstrated mixed success, with all patients report at least some sensation of light from the electrodes, and a smaller proportion gaining more detailed visual function, such as identifying patterns of light and dark areas.
  • The clinical reports indicate that, even with low resolution, retinal implants are potentially useful in providing crude vision to individuals who otherwise would not have any visual sensation.
  • However, clinical testing in implanted subjects is somewhat limited and the majority of spatial resolution simulation experiments have been conducted in normal controls.
  • It remains unclear whether the low level vision provided by current retinal implants is sufficient to balance the risks associated with the surgical procedure, especially for subjects with intact peripheral vision.
  • Several other aspects of retinal implants need to be addressed in future research, including the long term stability of the implants and the possibility of retinal neuron plasticity in response to prolonged stimulation.
  • In most cases of retinal degeneration, the photoreceptors
    degenerate while a large number of the other nerve cells in the retina remain intact . 
  • This is also true for the ganglion cells which form the output cells
    of the retina.
  • If the output cells of the retina are intact and can be stimulated electrically, artificial excitation of visual sensations is possible.
  • An artificial retina has achieved real success in bringing limited sight to the blind.
  • The Department of Energy estimates that 6 million Americans are blind because their retinas have been damaged by diseases like macular degeneration.
  • Worldwide they estimate that 25 million people have been made blind and that this number will rise to 50 million by 2020.
  • A patient named Terry spotted the shadow of his 18 year-old son as he passed by on a sidewalk. “It was the first time I’d seen anything of him since he was 5 years old,” Terry told Artificial Retina News, a publication of the Artificial Retina Project.
  • The third generation model is already in the works and promises much better vision by interfacing with the brain using a  1,000 electrode array vs the 60 electrode array used in the Argon II.
  • All of the patients implanted so far with the Argus™ II system had bare light perception or worse vision before the surgery. Averaging 56.8 years, their ages range from 28 to 77 years.
  • The median surgery time for the implant procedure in the United States is 3 hours.
  • Synchronized stimulation of different retinal locations with an epiretinal prosthesis implanted longterm can produce spatial vision with an acuity level determined by the distance between the electrodes.
  • Retina implant
  • Camera retinal implant
  • Retinal implant interview with Jonathan Abro
  • Retinal implants


  • The IMI Retinal Implant System
  • Horizon Scanning Technology
  • Retinal implant brightens future for blind
  • MEMS-based Retinal Implants
  • Solar powered retinal implants could restore lost vision
  • Plugging Into the Eye, With a New Design
  • Longer-Lasting Artificial Eyes
  • Retinal prosthesis provides hope for restoring sight


  • Artificial iris for the bag
  • Artificial iris Implant surgery
  • Artificial retina
  • Solar powered eye implant allows blind to see

Surgical equipments

  • Opthalmics
  • Retinal Implant Powered by Images
  • Hi-def and infrared vision in a subretinal implant from Retina Implant AG
  • Retinal Implants products
  • Retinal implants product index
  • Ocular surgical tool
  • Retina Implant CEO Walter Wrobel
  • Argus II artificial retina
  • The Argus II Artificial Retina System
  • Vision Restoration Devices


  • Retinal implant
  • Tests carried out on the bionic eye
  • Eye Disease Diagnosis and Treatment at NSVC
  • Retinal implant test 1
  • Retinal implant test 2


  • The Retinal Implant Project
  • Artificial retina project
  • The Boston Retinal Implant Project
  • Retina Implant
  • Development of a First Generation Wireless Implantable Retinal Implant
  • Diamond to Retina Artificial Micro-Interface Structures
  • General Information on the Retinal Implant Project
  • Retinal implant simulation
  • The Dept. of Energy artificial retina project


  • Active retina implant with a multiplicity of pixel elements
  • Power supply for a retina implant
  • Active sub-retina implant
  • Retina implant
  • Retina implant assembly and methods for manufacturing the same
  • Artificial retina device
  • Flexible artificial retina devices


  • A Sharper Future for Retinal Implants
  • Retinal implant
  • Microchip Implantation
  • Inviting Machines Into Our Bodies
  • Retinal Implant Research Group
  • First Retina Implant Surgery in the UK


  • QAD Helps Retina Implant AG Realize Its Vision
  • Wireless Retinal Implants Could Help Restore Vision
  • Futuristic use of retinal implants for enhanced visual perception
  • Wireless Rechargeable Retinal Implants Could Help Restore Sight
Surgical tools Suppliers
  • Suppliers of Surgery tools from Delhi
  • Manufacturers of Surgery tools
  • Selling leads of Surgery tools from India
  • Surgery tools Suppliers

Company profiles

  • Company from Chennai
  • Company 1 from Germany
  • Company 2 from Germany
  • Company 3 from Germany
  • Company from New Mexico
  • Company from Ohio
  • Company from U.K


  • Consultancy from California
  • Consultancy from U.K
  • Online Consultancy
  • The Retinal Implant Market Emerges
  • NCSU Researchers Helping Perfect Artificial Retina
  • Retinal implant seen as 2010 tech breakthrough
  • Retinal implants yield amazing results in U.K., China
  • Electric Eye: Retina Implant Research Expands in Europe, Seeks FDA Approval in U.S.
  • Retinal implant surgery hope for UK patients


  • Two blind British men have electronic retinas fitted
  • New Retinal Implant Enables Blind People to See Shapes and Objects
  • Wireless, photovoltaic retinal implants could recharge sight
  • Retinal prosthesis could help the blind see
  • Novel retinal implant could give full vision to the blind
  • Startup opens retina implant fab
  • Implants raise hope of restoring eyesight


  • Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial of Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant in Patients with Macular Edema Due to
    Retinal Vein Occlusion
  • Second Sight to Double Patient Enrollment for Argus II Retinal Implant U.S. Clinical Trial
  • Bionic vision Australia - Annual report
  • Details on the Technology of the Subretinal Implant, Clinical Study Design, Results and
    Spontaneous Reports of Patients including nine Movie Clips on performance
  • A retinal implant system based on flexible polymer microelectrode array for electrical stimulation
  • IOL surgery gone awry - 1970
  • Visual Prosthesis Market May Follow Uncharted Path
  • Retinal Implants Restore Partial Sight To Three Blind
  • How Would You Like Your Bionic Vision?
  • Retina Implant hopes to launch sight chip
  • Retinal chip implant undergoes clinical trials


  • Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis
  • First blind patients in the UK has retina implant
  • Trial of human retinal implants quite successful
  • Intraocular retinal prosthesis
  • Implantation and Explantation of a Wireless Epiretinal Retina Implant Device: Observations during the EPIRET3 Prospective Clinical Trial
  • Doheny Researchers to Test Next-Generation Retinal Implant

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