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Sugar Beet
Beta vulgaris var., saccharifera
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CD ROM Contents:

About Sugar Beet, Cultivation & Processing

  • Potential of Sugar Beet
  • Origins of Sugar from Beet
  • Sugar beets and Beet Sugar
  • Beet Sickness
  • Crop Profile
  • Cultivation
  • Fertilizer Manual
  • How sugar beet is made
  • Beet Sugar Factory
  • How Sugar is made
  • Sugar Beet Quality
  • Sugar Beet Breeding
  • Research Reports
  • USDA, Agricultural Research Service
  • Primary Cultivation
  • Seed Company
  • Sugar Beet Seed Company
  • Sugar Beet Seeds
  • Making Sugar from Roots
  • Beet Sugar making
  • Equipments Supplier
  • Pumps for Beet Sugar Factories
  • Energy Conservation
  • Beet Research
  • Seedex Inc
  • Du Pont
  • Pectin
  • FAQS
  • Conference Papers
  • Genetic Diversity
  • Organic Sugar
  • Bioethanol

Scenario in India

  • Feasibility for Cultivation -  Report for Tamil Nadu
  • Tamil Nadu Policy

World of Sugar Beet Industry

  • World Market
  • Trade Leads
  • Sugar Protection
  • Growers of Alberta
  • Michigan Growers Association
  • U.K. Growers
  • EU Sugar Market
  • Company Annual Report
  • Sugar Growers Cooperative
  • American Company
  • American Crystal Sugar Company
  • Crystal Sugar Company web
  • Wyoming Sugar Company
  • Sugar sector - EU
  • Beet Sugar Foundation
  • Sugar Beet & Genetic Modification
  • Molasses
  • Sugar Market
  • Market Outlook 2003
  • Biotechnology & Sugar Beet Industry
  • Biogas & Liquid Fuels
  • Case Study - EU & Brazil Industry
  • Sugar & Derivatives
  • FAO Report
  • USA Sugar Program
  • USA Customs regulations
  • Common Market Organization - CMO
  • CMO Sugar
  • Sugar Industry Abstracts
  • USA Sugar Beet Information Links
  • Internet Links
Beet Sugar Cultivation & Processing
@ a glance

Sugar cane and sugar beet are our two sources of
sugar : one is grown in hot, humid countries, the other
on the great plains of Europe.
The beet industry has waxed and waned over the years but today Europe produces 120 million tones of beet every year, used to make 16 million tones of white sugar.
France and Germany are still the main producers but sugar is produced from beet in all European countries except Luxembourg.
Almost 90% of sugar consumed in Europe is locally grown.

Countries in the Field:
USSR, USA, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Turkey,
Czechoslovakia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Algeria, Israel,
Pakistan and other 14 countries

Agronomy of sugar beet
1. Tropical varieties : Pasoda, Hi 0064, Doratea
2. Soil
Well drained, loamy to clay loam
pH 6.5 to 8.0 tolerate mild salinity
pH <6 can not be grown
3. Season & Climate
Oct Nov to March May (sub tropical varieties)
Optimum temperature regimes
Germination :20 - 250C
Growth and maturity :30 - 350C
Sugar accumulation :25 - 350CUSSR, USA, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Turkey,
Czechoslovakia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Algeria, Israel,
Pakistan and other 14 countries
4. Crop establishment :
        Seed rate : 3.6 kg / ha (Rs.5700/ha)
        Spacing : 50 x 20 cm
        Population : 1 to 1.2 lakhs plants / ha
5. Fertilizer : 120 : 60 : 60 kg N, P2O5 and K2O / ha
(Time& Split: Not standardized)
6. Irrigation (Quantity & Schedule: Not standardized)
Pre-sowing (seeds germinate in a week)
1st irrigation early establishment
Subsequent irrigation need based
Sensitive to water stagnation
Stop irrigation 1 month before harvest
Irrigation just prior to harvest

Extraction by solvent is the process used to extract the sugar from sugar beets.
In sugar beet processing, the sliced beets are subjected to a thermal treatment by hot water at 7074C.
This leads to alteration of the cell tissue and loss of pectin into the juice, which consequently needs complicated purification. The application of pulsed electric field (PEF) ensures a non-thermal permeabilization of cellular membrane which ameliorates the juice purity. 
Discs of fresh sugar beet were pre-treated by PEF at different intensities and different numbers of pulses. Then they were immersed in water at ambient temperature with liquid-to-solid ratio equal to 1.
The extraction kinetics were modeled using a simplified two-exponential kinetic model, which corresponds to mass transfer in two stages. The optimal parameters of PEF, giving the maximal juice yield under the minimal energy consumption, were determined.
The influence of energy input on the yield of solute and the effect of agitation speed on the mass transfer rate were studied. The optimal speed of stirring was 250 rpm.

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