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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol At and atomic number 85.
  • It is highly radioactive and is only available in tiny quantities. Its properties are inferred from its position in the periodic table and by studying its chemistry in extremely dilute solutions.
  • It is the least chemically reactive of the halogens and exhibits the most metallic properties of the halogen group.
  • It was made by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles in a cyclotron  to produce, after emission of two neutrons, astatine-211. The scientists found that the isotope they created was radioactive, so they named the element using the Greek ‘astatos’ meaning unstable.
  • It is now known that there are no stable astatine isotopes – the longest lived isotope, astatine-210, has a half-life of 8.3 hours.
  • Three years later, astatine was found in nature by Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert as an intermediate in radioactive decay chains. Traces of the element appear naturally in uranium and thorium minerals as a decay product. At any given time, about 25 grams of naturally occurring astatine exists on our planet.
  • Astatine-211 is sometimes used as a radioactive tracer and in cancer treatment.
    Like iodine, it is known to accumulate in the thyroid gland. Many chemical properties of astatine have been determined using tracer studies on extremely dilute astatine solutions.
    Astatine has an electronegativity of 2.2 on the revised Pauling scale. This is lower than that of iodine (2.66) and the same as that of hydrogen. However, in hydrogen astatide (HAt) the negative charge is predicted to be on the hydrogen atom, implying that this compound should instead be referred to as astatine hydride
  • The newly formed astatine-211 is important in nuclear medicine. It can be used for targeted alpha particle radiotherapy


  • Atomic energy commission radiochemistry of astatine
  • General information
  • pre-targeting of Astatine-211 for therapy of metastatic prostate cancer
  • Astatine-211 and Astatinated radiopharmaceuticals


  • Comparative Tissue Distribution in Mice of the Emitter211Atand 13IIas Labels
    of a Monoclonal Antibody and F(ab')2 Fragment
  • Biodistributions, Myelosuppression and Toxicities in Mice Treated with an Anti-CD45
    Antibody Labeled with the α-Emitting Radionuclides Bismuth-213 or Astatine-211
  • Cytotoxicity of particle-emitting astatine-211 Labeled
    antibody in tumours spheroids
  • Online quantification of 211At at distillation
  • Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium
  • Cellular Processing of Astatinated EGF
    After Binding to Cultured Carcinoma Cells
  • Therapeutic efficacy of astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab on radio resistant skov-3 tumors in nude mice
  • Tumor Induction with Astatine-211 in Rats


  • Astatine molecule stability in vivo
  • Radiobiological Effects of Alpha-Particles from Astatine-211 From DNA Damage to Cell Death
  • Radiolytic Effects on the Chemical Behavior
    of 211At


  • Advances in the development of Astatine
  • Cytotoxicity of oc-particle-emitting astatine-21 I Labeled
    antibody in tumours spheroids
  • Effective cancer therapy with the alpha-particle emitter astatine in a mouse model of genetically modified sodium/iodide symporter-expressing tumors
  • An update of the use of boron cagemolecules in pendant groups for211At-labeling of Biomolecular


  • Production of the alpha - particle emitting radionuclide Astatine-211 at the Texas A&M cyclotron institute
  • Update on cyclotron production studies of no-carrier-added
  • Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes
  • Astatine molecule stability in vivo
  • About Astatine
  • Comparative Cellular Catabolism and Retention of Astatine
  • Direct Procedure for Astatination of Antibody Conjugate


  • Medical and health physics quarterly report
  • Astatine-211 radiochemistry
  • Pre-targeting of astatine-211 for therapy of metastatic prostate cancer
  • Mass measurements of astatine isotopes
  • Chains, Energy and Resources


  • Production and Assessment of
    211At for Targeted Alpha Therapy
  • An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and
    in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine
  • Development of astatine ion beams with RILIS


  • Astatinated organic compounds
  • Process for isolation and radiolabelling of pharmaceuticals with isotopes of astatine
  • Hypervalent radioactive astatine or iodine compounds and preparation methods thereof



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