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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • A silvery white actinide metal with symbol Cf having atomic number 98 and also possess a
    radioactive characteristics.
  • Californium was named after it was discovered in California.
  • It does not occur naturally and therefore ten isotopes are available which are radioactive.
  • Californium is produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.
  • Large quantities of Californium can be synthesized by irradiating plutonium or its transmutation products with neutrons in a nuclear reactor.
  • Californium is an efficient neutron source. It is used in neutron moisture gauges and as a portable neutron source for metal detection.
  • A strong neutron emitter
    by spontaneous fission; one
    microgram emits 170 million neutrons per minute.
  • Californium useful as a neutron startup source for some nuclear reactors and as a portable neutron source for neutron activation analysis.
  • Large masses of 252Cf are used for neutron radiography of weapons components and in
    explosive detection systems.
  • Californium-252 is used
    commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron
    source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis
    (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals.
  • Californium-252 radio isotopic neutron source capsules have been used for Brachytherapy treatment of radio resistant tumors.
  • Californium-252 is conveniently packaged into small sealed source capsules with a wide range of intensities.
  • One of the portable neutron source for discovery of metals such as gold & silver.


  • Californium.
  • Fact sheet of Californium.
  • Review about Californium.
  • Supply & funding status of Californium-252.
  • Basin information about CF.
  • Spontaneous fission neutron sources.
  • Production and distribution of Californium-252 neutron sources.
  • Californium-Overview.
  • Properties of Californium.


  • Californium-252.
  • Californium Msds.


  • Californium Production at the transuranium processing plant.
  • Californium Production in the high flux isotope reactor.
  • Design and fabrication of Californium-252 sources.
  • Development of Chemical process & equipment to recover Californium-252.
  • Californium-252 user facility for neutron science.


  • Separation of Californium from curium by solvent extraction.
  • Separation of Californium from other Actinides.
  • Californium-Palladium metal neutron source material.
  • Cable Attachment for a radioactive Brachytherapy source capsule.
  • Separation of Actinide Element.
  • Californium containing radioactive source wires.
  • Californium and Einsteinium separation.
  • Fabricating thin californium containing radioactive source wires.
  • Dosimetry for Californium neutron emitting Brachytherapy sources.

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  • Spontaneous fission of light californium isotopes.
  • Radiological safety aspects in Californium-252 source transfer operation.
  • Modified neutron fields with americium-beryllium & Californium-252 sources.
  • Separation of 248Cm from a 252Cf neutron source for production of Cm targets.
  • Elimination of Berkelium and Californium following acute inhalation.
  • Californium 254 & Supernovae.


  • Californium-252 Newsletter.
  • New Element Californium.
  • Safe transfer of californium enables more analyses.
  • Californium-252.
  • A Remarkable Versatile radioisotope-Californium.
  • Progress in Californium-252 Neutron Brachytherapy
  • Historical review of californium-252 discovery.


  • Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Waste Characterization.
  • Development of Miniature Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Cancer Therapy
  • 252Cf for Calibrating Safeguards Monitors.
  • Applications of Californium-252 neutron sources in medicine.
  • Radiation hardness of Avalanche photodiodes using Californium-252.
  • Californium-252 Industrial Applications.

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