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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie.
  • Polonium is the first element of the periodic table for which all of its isotopes are radioactive. It
    is a very rare natural element, Gen Roessler existing in uranium ores in amounts of about 100 µg per ton of ore.
  • There are seven polonium isotopes that arise from the naturally occurring thorium (212Po, 216Po), actinium
    (211Po, 215Po), and uranium (210Po,214Po, 218Po) decay series. Because none of these isotopes has a long
    half time, they do not accumulate in the natural environment to any significant extent polonium metal is silvery gray in color and interacts to varying extent with O2 depending on the temperature. Practically, the metal can be maintained only under inert atmosphere.
  • Because the specific activity of 210Po is so high (166 TBq g-1), milligram quantities will exist at
    temperatures well above ambient. The electron configuration of neutral polonium resembles those of selenium
    and tellurium Polonium-210 is widely found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. This is because it is produced during the decay of another natural element called uranium-238.
  • It can also be produced by processing uranium ores or
    minerals, but the amount produced is very small. Very small amounts of polonium-210 are found in food.
  • Polonium-210 is used mainly in machines to get rid of static electricity. Machines used to make paper, sheet plastics and synthetic fibers often use this element.
  • Polonium-210 is also used in brushes to remove dust from photographic films and camera lenses. It can be used to make atomic weapons Polonium-210 is found almost everywhere in nature in low levels, so exposure cannot be completely prevented.
  • The best way to limit exposure is to not breathe tobacco smoke. Radiation from polonium-210
    cannot go through outer dead layers of skin or through clothing. Eyes or open wounds must be carefully protected.
  • Polonium is an alpha-emitter, and is used as an alpha-particle source for scientific research in the form of a thin film
    on a stainless steel disc. It is also used as a heat source in space equipment.


  • Polonium Human-Injection Experiments
  • Polonium-210 Information Sheet
  • General Information
  • Accumulation of Polonium-210 in different species of fish in Lake Mead
  • Polonium-210
  • Illness without diagnosis
  • Polonium 210 in Tobacco, Cigarette Smoke, and Selected Human Organs
  • Recent Research & Development for Polonium
  • A Hidden History of Cancer, Radiation, and the
    Tobacco Industry
  • modelling and simulation
  • Source of this Polonium 210


  • Report on the work session of the polonium project
  • Polonium powered aircraft for military purpose
  • Present status of polonium tolerance estimations
  • Progress Report on the Joint α-Spectroscopy Project of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State Laboratory of Hygiene
  • Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross
  • Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient
    polonium and lead nuclei
  • The Radiochemistry
    of Polonium
  • Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity


  • Feasibility of Reconstructing Doses Received from Potential Exposures to Polonium at Savannah River Site
  • Process and characteristics of major isotopes handled at mound
  • Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments


  • Tera-Scale Graph Mining and Inference for Malware Detection


  • Material Safety Data Sheet
    for Polonium-213 hydride
  • Nuclide Safety Data Sheet
    Polonium – 210


  • High purity polonium recovery
  • Removal of radioactive lead and polonium from tobacco


  • Supplier from California


  • Biological studies with polonium
  • Development of LEAD-210 measurement in peat using polonium extraction
  • Origin of Polonium Halos
  • Branching Ratio in the Decay of Polonium-210
  • The inflow of polonium 210Po from Vistula river
    catchments area
  • Vistula and Odra Rivers and its basin
  • Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes
  • Management of Response to the Polonium-210 Incident in London
  • Suspected Radioactive Contamination


  • Polonium-210 activity in human hair samples and
    factors affecting its accumulation
  • Death by
  • The Polonium-210 Poisoning in London
  • Large deficiency of polonium in the oligotrophic ocean's
  • Health effects
  • Radioactive Smoke


  • Branching Ratio in the Decay of Polonium-210
  • Phases of Polonium via Density Functional Theory
  • Determination of Polonium-210 emission from stationary sources
  • Radioactivity


  • Individual Monitoring Conducted by the Health Protection Agency in
    the London Polonium-210 Incident
  • Polonium-210 Found in
    Nevada Wells
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant
    Internal Dosimetry of Polonium-210
  • Separation of polonium from bismuth by distillation
  • Purification of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Used in Accelerator Driven Systems
  • Polonium Urinalysis


  • Chemical in the news — Polonium-210
  • Health physics news
  • Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London

Fact sheet

  • Fact sheet on Polonium-210
  • Polonium fact sheet
  • Fact sheet human experimentation
  • Fact sheet for Polonium

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