Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD)
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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Flue Gas Desulphurization is widely acknowledged as today’s state-of-the art technology for removing sulfur dioxide from the exhaust flue gas in coal- and oil-fired power plants.
  • Although the FGD process was originally established for environmental purposes, a large amount of high quality, synthetic gypsum is created as a byproduct of the scrubbing process.
  • Wet flue gas desulfurization or scrubber systems are an excellent way of reducing the sulfur dioxide emissions caused by coal combustion boilers.
  • Conventional wet FGD systems are in successful operation at a large number of coal-fired facilities ranging in size from small, individual applications to large utility applications of more than 1000 MW.
  • FGD wastewater treatment has primarily consisted of physical/chemical processes for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metals.
  • An innovative and patent-pending biological treatment system, iBIO™ technology, developed by Degremont Technologies – IDI, provides an enhanced treatment option for the removal of residual selenium compounds from FGD wastewaters.
  • The new FGD wastewater method requires the analysis of two new QC samples, a Synthetic FGD Matrix Sample and a Fortified FGD Matrix Sample.
  • Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum is understood as being the hydrated calcium sulphate (CaSO4 • 2 H2O) produced within the flue gas desulphurization of power stations. FGD gypsum is also referred to as raw gypsum.
  • The great majority of recently proposed and installed FGD systems for coal-fired units have utilized the wet limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) process.
  • Cost estimate modeling for enhancement of mercury emissions control with a wet FGD system calculates the annual levelized costs following the basic methodology of EPRI’s TAG™ Technical Assessment Guide.
  • The wet horizontal ball mill has typically been the workhorse for limestone slurry preparation within a wet FGD system.
  • The conditions inside the operating FGD systems vary greatly depending upon the part of the system or component of interest. Thus, some parts of the FGD system require more aggressive corrosion protection than others.
  • The AFGD(Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization) process is potentially applicable to all types of conventional coal-fired boilers including stoker, cyclone, wall-fired and tangentially fired boilers. Pure Air states that the most likely application of AFGD is with boilers above 100 MWe in capacity, since duct scrubbers are favored at lower capacities because of lower capital cost. Of the larger boilers, the most likely retrofit candidates would be those currently burning medium to high sulfur coal that choose to install scrubbers rather than switch fuels.
  • High performance, cost-effective scrubbers will be prime contenders for a share of this market. The international market represents additional opportunities for AFGD.
  • Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) technology has become the hot topic of power generation. The number of FGD units operating during some yrs grew from 40 in two countries to over 700 in 30 countries. Power plants in the U.S. are expected to spend $200 billion for FGD systems between 2005 and 2020. Of the 2.2 million megawatts of coal-fired plants in operation by 2020, two-thirds will be equipped with FGD systems.
  • Over the next decade, owners of coal-fired power plants around the globe are expected to spend nearly $200 Billion to add flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to existing and new combustion units. Most of this investment will be in China and the United States. Many emerging industrial nations, however, such as India and South Africa are also investing heavily in air pollution control (APC) technologies.
  • Current coal consumption for Ohio exceeds 50 million tons annually, with almost half of this coal being mined in the state. Coal-fired electric utilities account for 90% of the coal consumed and supply nearly 90% of the state’s electricity. The combustion of such a large quantity of coal leads to enormous amounts of coal combustion products (CCPs). CCPs include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material.

Introduction & Process

  • Flue Gas Desulphurisation
  • FGD system
  • Wet flue gas desulfurization technology evaluation
  • Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) Optimization
  • Welding and fabrication of nickel alloys in FGD systems
  • Biological Treatment System for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater
  • Shell–Paques  Desulphurisation Process Matured into Breakthrough Technology
  • Flue Gas Desulphurization System
  • Flue Gas Desulphurization
  • Level and flow instruments for Flue Gas Desulphurization
  • Flue Gas Desulfurization Process


  • Externality analysis of the Flue Gas Desulphurization system
  • Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD)
  • Analysis of flue gas desulfurization wastewaters
  • Fgd system foaming Operational issues and design considerations
  • Analysis of FGD gypsum
  • Mercury emissions control in Wet FGD systems


  • Results of full-scale utility fgd so2 removal upgrade testing
  • Flue Gas Desulphurisation for Hot Recycle Oxyfuel Combustion
  • Experience in effective application of metallic materials for construction of fgd systems
  • Advances in Fine Grinding & Mill System Application in the FGD Industry
  • Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum in plasterboard manufacture
  • The rapid growth of fiberglass reinforced Plastic (frp) in fgd system
  • Quantifying the benefits of flue gas desulfurization gypsum in sustainable wallboard production
  • The use of FRP in FGD application


  • Purification of FGD gypsum product
  • Dewatering belt for flue gas desulphurisation installations, of a single-layered fabric belt
  • Method of improving the Hg-removing capability of a flue gas cleaning process
  • Flue gas control system of coal combustion boiler and operating method thereof
  • Preparation containing gypsum from flue gas desulphurisation, method for using the same and use thereof
  • Desulfurization process for flue gases


  • Trona
  • Sodium Sesquicarbonate
  • Synthetic Gypsum
  • Activated Carbon
  • Sodium Carbonate, Anhydrous


  • MHI Receives Successive Orders for Large-scale FGD Systems from Spain
  • A potential new market for FGD
  • FGD market in Tamilnadu
  • Market opportunities for utilization of Ohio flue gas desulfurization (fgd)
  • Analysis of mog and ladco’s fgd and scr capacity and cost assumptions in the evaluation of proposed egu 1 and egu 2 emission controls

Pricing  details

  • Wet FGD System Materials Cost Update
  • Three Ways to Save Money on FGD Retrofit
  • FGD Operation and Maintenance Costs
  • Economic Analysis of Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Project Operation
  • Determination of costs for activities of annexes IV, V and VII Sector: Boilers and Process Heaters
  • Revisions to Cost and Performance for APC Technologies

Safety Issues

  • Unexpected FGD Safety Issues
  • Fgd slurry density measurement
  • Impact of FCG system
  • Factors Affecting the Timeline for Retrofit of Environmental Control Technologies to Coal-fired Power Stations"
  • Designing constructed wetlands formitigating risks from flue gas desulfurization wastewater

FGD Suppliers

  • Manufacturers of FGD
  • Suppliers of FGD
  • Exporters of FGD
  • FGD Suppliers
  • List of Suppliers

Plant Manufacturers

  • Company from Georgia
  • Company from Korea
  • Company from Staffordshore
  • Company from U.K
  • Another Company from U.K
  • Company from U.S.A
  • Company from Pennsylvania
  • Another Company from U.S.A
  • Flue-Gas Desulfurization (“Scrubbers”)
  • Water treatment plant
  • Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant
  • Comparison of Gypsum dewatering technologies at flue gas desulfurization plants
  • Biological FGD plant

Turnkey Machineries

  • Company from Texas
  • Company from U.S.A
  • Another Company from U.S.A
  • Company from Brazil
  • Company from China
  • Company from Finland

Company & Turnkey Plant

  • Manufacturing Company from Ohio
  • Company from Denmark
  • Company from France
  • Company from Germany
  • Company from Japan
  • Company from Poland
  • Company from Romania
  • Company from Spain
  • Company from U.S.A
  • Global Turnkey plant manufacturers


  • Consultancy from Illinois
  • Consultancy from NewYork
  • Consultancy from U.S.A
  • Consultancy from Netherland
  • Consultancy from Carolina
  • Consultancy from South Africa


  • The Use of ZERON 100 In Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant
  • Spray Drying Absorption
  • Special Alloys and Overmatching Welding Products Solve FGD Corrosion Problems
  • Reliability of Flue Gas Desulphurisation Installations
  • Quantifying the benefits of flue gas desulfurization gypsum in sustainable wallboard production
  • Nickel containing materials in flue gas desulfurization equipment
  • Mercury Capture and Fate Using Wet FGD at Coal-Fired Power Plants
  • Mathematical modelling of flue-gas desulphurisation using lime slurry in a Turbulent Contact Absorber
  • Investigation of Hg release from FGD gypsum
  • Co-Disposal of dry FGD By-product with Coal Gasification ash and Inorganic Brines
  • A 6% mo stainless steel for Flue gas desulfurization


  • Study on Improving the Performance of Electrostatic Precipitator in the Large-scale Semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization System
  • Seawater Flue Gas Desulphurisation
  • Field Experience with Nickel-Base Alloys and Future Trends in Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
  • Fabrication guidelines for thin-sheet metallic lining of flue gas desulfurization systems
  • New FGD development in Europe
  • Controlling SO2 Emissions


  • Use of Seawater as Makeup Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
  • Flue Gas Desulphurisation with SIMONA®PP-H 100 AlphaPlus Pipes
  • Reduction of WaterUse in Wet FGDSystems
  • The Porto Tolle CCS demonstration project
  • Mercury Emissions Control Technologies


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