Chemicals from Sea
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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • The sea offers a variety of minerals, many of which are considered to be alternative sources of metals.
  • Minerals occur on the seabed in two forms: 1)Polymetallic nodules which are small balls of iron, manganese and Sea bed massive sulphides lie at extinct hydrothermal vents and contain copper, gold, zinc and other metals. They are extracted using remotely operated vehicles to scrap the deposits from the seabed and pump them to a barge.
  • Project have four key result areas: 1) development of regional legislative and regulatory framework for offshore minerals exploration & mining 2) formulation if national policy, legislation and regulations 3) building national capacities 4) effective management and
    monitoring of offshore exploration and mining operations.
  • Nautilus is the first company to commercially explore for seafloor massive sulphide deposits.
  • Deep sea minerals rich in Copper, Cobalt, Nickel, Manganese, Zinc, Lead, Barium, Silver and Gold.
  • A major technological challenge to mining minerals from such depths.
  • Concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been obtained as a way of counteracting the
    gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores.
  • Sea water contains approximately 65,000 tonnes of bromine. This bromine is removed from the sea water by displacement of the bromide ions using chlorine.
  • Sea water contains at least 72 different chemical elements.
  • Mineral Extraction sector includes the extraction of marine aggregates from the seabed and the extraction of salt.
  • Resources extracted from the sea that were formerly in the sea range from common construction materials to high-tech metals to water.
  • Chemical analyses have demonstrated that sea water contains about 3.5 percent dissolved solids, with more than sixty chemical elements identified.
  • Limitations on extraction of the dissolved elements as well as the extraction of mineral resources are nearly always economic, but also be affected by geographic location  and hampered by technological constraints.
  • Magnesium in sea water at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million, is the only metal directly extracted from sea water.
  • Currently 60 percent of the magnesium metal and many of the magnesium salts produced in the United States are extracted from sea water by  electrolytically.
  • Marine minerals in deeper waters are currently being described as future potential resources.


  • Chemical Composition of Seawater.
  • Mineral Accretion for Shelter.
  • Status of India's Polymetallic Nodule Mining Programme.
  • Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Seawater.


  • Mining lease granted for  Project.
  • Desalination Fact Sheet.
  • Fresh water from the sea.

Chemical Composition

  • Chemical Substances found in Sea Water.
  • Chemical Composition of Seawater.

Mineral Resources

  • Mineral Extraction.
  • Collection of Uranium from Seawater.
  • Sea Minerals.
  • Oceanic Minerals and their origin.
  • Minerals from Icelandic Seabed.
  • Mineral Resources from the Ocean.
  • Extracting Minerals from the Ocean Floor.
  • List of Minerals found under the Sea Bed.


  • Supa Boost Sea minerals.
  • Kona deep sea minerals.


  • Deep Ocean Seafloor-Mineral Extraction.
  • A Cementation Process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea Geothermal Brines.
  • Chemical process development of Sorel cement from Seawater.
  • Marine Mineral Extraction.
  • Salt Recovery Process.
  • Extracting Bromine from Sea Water.


  • Deep Sea Minerals Project.
  • Sea Water Desalination Project.
  • Lake Assal Salt Project.
  • Making use of Sea water as an Alternative Resource.
  • A DME Project in Iceland.


  • Recovery of Chemicals from Saline Water.
  • Deep Sea Water harvesting method.
  • Treating sea water with production of chlorine and fertilizer.
  • Producing Magnesium from Seawater.
  • Extracting Uranium from Seawater.
  • Hoist piping for deep-sea mineral slurry.
  • Metals extraction from Sea Water.
  • Producing low Sodium Sea salt from seawater.
  • Nutritional supplement containing sea water minerals.

Production Plant

  • Production plant from India.
  • Production plant from Japan.


  • Seafloor Production System.
  • Seawater electro chlorination systems.
  • Subsea Production System.

Turnkey Providers

  • Turnkey Provider from Ahmedabad.

Company Profile

  • Company from Canada.
  • Company from Israeli.


  • Consultancy from Australia.
  • Consultancy from India.
  • Consultancy from South Africa.


  • Study on extraction of uranium from sea water.
  • Effects of mineral and chemical admixtures on high-strength concrete in seawater.
  • Extracting minerals from seawater.
  • Mineral Processing Case Study.
  • Sea water desalination  using Electrodialysis.
  • A study on boron removal by mineral cluster coagulant for seawater desalination application.


  • Drinking water from Desalination of Seawater.
  • Seawater Concentrate Management.
  • Seamount Mineral Deposits.
  • Mineral and energy resources of the Sea.
  • The promise and peril of seafloor mining.
  • Needs for exploration and exploitation of deep sea minerals.
  • New Industries in the deep sea.
  • Overview of the Deep Sea Minerals Project.
  • Measures to reduced the environmental impact of deep sea extraction of minerals.
  • Treasures from the Deep.

Market Demands

  • Economic Potential of Deep Ocean Minerals.
  • Seawater Desalination Costs.
  • Nautilus Minerals - Growth and Trends.
  • Deep Sea Mining Markets.
  • Deep sea water and its future in the worldwide marketplace.


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