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Contents on the CD Rom

  • Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compounds commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae
    family of plants, including Aristolochia and Asarum, which are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine.
  • Aristolochic acid I is the most abundant of the aristolochic acids and is found in almost all Aristolochia species.
  • Aristolochic acid (AA) is a known nephrotoxin (kidney) and potential carcinogen.
  • Aristolochic acids may be a causative agent in Balkan nephropathy.
  • Exposure to aristolochic acid is associated with a high incidence of uroepithelial tumorigenesis.
  • Aristolochic acids are slightly soluble in water, have a melting point between 281 and 286 degrees celsius, and have a bitter flavor.
  • Herbal drugs derived from Aristolochia species have been known since antiquity and were used in obstetrics and in the treatment of snake bites.
  • Plants containing aristolochic acids are often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad.
  • Aristolochic acids may be found as a contaminant in herbal products used to treat a wide variety of symptoms and diseases, such as arthritis, gout, and inflammation.
  • Aristolochic acid (AA), a mixture of aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), is present in Aristolochiaceae plants, many of which are used as herbal folk remedies.
  • Aristolochic acid is the active component of herbal drugs derived from Aristolochia species that have been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity.
  • FDA has developed a method for determination of aristolochic acid in botanical products.
  • Samples are powdered, then extracted using 80:18:2 methanol:water:formic acid. This extract is filtered, then analyzed for the primary isomer, aristolochic acid I, using HPLC with UV detection. Extracts are then analyzed by LC-MS/MS for confirmation of both positive and negative results.
  • Since LC-MS/MS is used in all cases, WCAS uses this technique exclusively for measurement of aristolochic acid.
  • A facile reversed-phase HPLC method for the analysis of aristolochic acid (AA) and aristolactam (AL) analogues was developed and used for the quantitative determination and quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine.
  • The pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor, feeds exclusively on plants in the genus Aristolochia, many of which are known to contain the toxic alkaloids collectively known as aristolochic acids.
  • Aristolochic acid (I) and (II) are the primary aristolochic acids found in Aristolochia californica. The highest concentration of aristolochic acids was found in the flowers, which bloom before B. philenor emerges.
  • Aristolochic acids (AAs), a family of structurally related nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, are found naturally in medicinal plants such as Radix aristolochiae or herbs such as Aristolochia spp..
  • The herbs sold on the Asian market are used to relieve pain by subdueing hyperactivity of the liver, to induce diuresis, as well as to control weight.
  • In the early years, ingestion of AAs was incriminated in the outbreak of the so-called Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), severe
    tubulointerstitial nephritis.
  • Many countries including UK, Canada, Australia, and Germany have announced banning to restrict the importation, sale, and use of Aristolochic acid containing medicines like Aristolochia fangchi and Mutong.
  • Aristolochia spp. and Asarum spp. are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but those products are regulated as medicines in Taiwan.
  • Aristolochic acid (AA), a mixture of structure-related nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acid derivatives derived from Aristolochia spp, is associated with nephrotoxin and carcinogen.
  • A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the quantitative determination of aristolochic acid in different parts of Asarum heterotropoides produced in different places and growing years.
  • Aristolochic acids are a family of acids found naturally in the plants Aristolochia and Asarum, which grow throughout the United
    States and worldwide.
General Information
  • Aristolochic Acid
  • Aristolochic acid general information
  • Aristolochia species and Aristolochic acids
  • Aristolochic acid  general facts

Process & Functions

  • Anti-microbial Activity of Aristolochic Acid from Root of Aristolochia bracteata Retz
  • Determination of aristolochic acid in Chinese herbal medicine by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection
  • Quantitative Determination of Aristolochic Acid in Asarum
    heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag.
  • The molecular mechanisms of aristolochic acid nephropathy
  • Human cytosolic enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of carcinogenic
    aristolochic acid: evidence for reductive activation by human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase
  • Mechanism of chronic aristolochic acid nephropathy
  • Detection of Aristolochic Acid
  • The Effect of Aristolochic Acids on Preference and Performance of a
    Non-Specialist Herbivore
  • Effect of aristolochic acid on intracellular calcium concentration and its links with apoptosis in renal tubular cells


  • NMR Studies on the Subacute Biochemical Effects of Aristolochic Acid on Rat Serum
  • Pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity of
    aristolochic acid in rabbits
  • Human and experimental features of aristolochic acid nephropathy
  • Sequestration of aristolochic acids by the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor (L.): evidence and ecological implications
  • Cytochrome P450 1A2 Detoxicates Aristolochic Acid in the Mouse
  • Studies on pharmacokinetics of aristolochic acid I in rats
  • Population-Based Case–Control Study of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Aristolochic Acid and Urinary Tract Cancer Risk


  • Process for extracting aristolochic acids
  • Peptide nucleic acid combinatorial libraries and improved methods of synthesis
  • Electroscopic carrier particles having a carboxylic acid surface treatment
  • Products for preventing penetration into the skin
  • Taliscanin and other aristolactams for treating neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer disease and impotence
  • Method to modulate hematopoietic stem cell growth

Company Profiles

  • Company from USA
  • Company from China
  • Company from Taiwan
  • Company from India
  • Company from America
  • Company from USA


  • Consultancy from Belgium
  • Consultancy from Hong Kong
  • Consultancy from Canada
  • Consultancy from USA
  • Consultancy from Ireland
  • Consultancy from USA
  • Consultancy from New Delhi
  • Consultancy from South Australia
  • Consultancy from UK
  • Consultancy from USA


  • Aristolochic Acid Suppliers
  • Aristolochic Acid Suppliers and manufacturers
  • Selling Leads of Aristolochic Acid

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  • Aristolochic acids affect the feeding behaviour and development of Battus
    polydamas archidamas larvae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Troidini)
  • Analysis of the Analogues of Aristolochic Acid and
    Aristolactam in the Plant of Aristolochia Genus by HPLC
  • Analyzing Aristolochic Acids in Chinese Herbal Preparations Using LC/MS/MS
  • Identification tests of aristolochic acid in crude drugs by reversed phase TLC/Scanning densitometry
  • Analysis of Aristolochic Acid in Asarum (Xixin) and Its
    Preparations by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Analysis of aristolochic acid I and II in kampo medicine preparations
  • A model without a mimic: aristolochic acids from the california pipevine swallowtail, battus philenor hirsuta and its host plant, aristolochia californica
  • Recent progress in quantitative analysis of DNA adducts of nephrotoxin aristolochic acid

Application & Products

  • Gene Expression Profiles Distinguish the Carcinogenic Effects of Aristolochic Acid in Target (Kidney) and Non-target (Liver) Tissues
    in Rats
  • Carcinogenic and Nephrotoxic Alkaloids Aristolochic Acids
    upon Activation by NADPH : Cytochrome P450 Reductase
    Form Adducts Found in DNA of Patients with Chinese
    Herbs Nephropathy
  • Aristolochic Acid
  • Aristolochic acid application note
  • Product data sheet - Aristolochic acid

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Aristolochic acid I pure
  • Aristolochic acid II rotichrom HPLC
  • Aristolochic acid, mixture of I and II (approx. 1:1)
  • Aristolochic acid sodium salt
  • Aristolochic acid
  • Aristolochic acid msds
  • Aristolochic acid I sodium salt


  • The Elevation of L-3-Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in the Serum
    of Aristolochic Acid-Treated Mice
  • Assessment of Chinese medicinal herb metabolite
    profiles by UPLC-MS-based methodology for the
    detection of aristolochic acids
  • Aristolochic Acid by LC-MS/MS
  • Sequence specific detection of aristolochic acid DNA adducts in the human p53 gene by terminal transferase dependent PCR


  • Report on Carcinogens
    Background Document for
    Aristolochic Acids
  • Selective Toxicity of Aristolochic Acids I and II
  • Aristolochic Acids
  • Genotoxicity of Aristolochic Acid: A Review
  • Traditional herbal medicines containing plant species of the genus Aristolochia are carcinogenic to humans


  • Risk evaluation and determination of aristolochic acids and heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines
  • Aristolochic acid as a risk factor for Balkan endemic nephropathy


  • Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy
  • Aristolochic Acids
  • FDA Alerts Americans of Possible Danger of Herbal Supplements that May Contain Aristolochic Acid
  • Aristolochic Acid (Chinese-herb) Nephropathy
  • Plants containing aristolochic acid
  • Safety of herbal preparations
    on the Dutch market

Primary Information Services
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Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
Email :
Mobile numbers:9940043898, 9444008898  Fax : 91 44 22423753