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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) is a phosphate mineral with formula: NH4MgPO46H2O.
  • Struvite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system as white to yellowish or brownish-white pyramidal crystals or in platey mica-like forms. It is a soft mineral with Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2 and has a low specific gravity of 1.7.
  • It is sparingly soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions, but readily soluble in acid.
  • Struvite urinary stones and crystals form readily in the urine of animals and humans that are infected with ammonia-producing organisms.
  • They are potentiated by alkaline urine and high magnesium excretion (high magnesium/plant-based diets).
  • They also are potentiated by a specific urinary protein, in cats.
  • Struvite is occasionally found in canned seafood, where its appearance is that of small glass slivers, objectionable to consumers for aesthetic reasons but of no health consequence.
  • Struvite precipitates in alkaline urine, forming stones. Struvite is the most common mineral found in urinary tract stones in dogs, and is found also in urinary tract
    stones of cats and humans.
  • Struvite stones are potentiated by bacterial infection that hydrolyzes urea to ammonium and raises urine pH to neutral or alkaline values.
  • A very big concern for water waste management and recycling was the high concentrations of phosphorus.
  • In the right conditions phosphorus can be precipitated out as struvite. It requires the above mentioned elements. Magnesium being the limited factor for precipitation. The precipitation of struvite is more efficient in higher alkaline environments.
  • Urine contains phosphate (PO4) and ammonium (NH4). When magnesium (Mg) is added to urine, phosphate, ammonium and magnesium bind and form struvite (MgNH4PO46H2O), which can then be filtered out, collected, and dried into a powder.
  • Struvite can be applied to fields just like any other fertiliser. In a simple granulation drum , the powder can be transformed into granules. In granular form, a fertiliser is easier to apply and does not cake in moist environments.
  • Struvite
  • What is Struvite
  • Struvite harvesting at Madison MSD
  • Struvite mineral data
  • Struvite bladder stones in Cats
  • Low cost Struvite reactor


  • Use of Struvite, a novel P source derived  from Wastewater treatment in wheat cultivation
  • Germany - Urine and MAP (Struvite) used as fertiliser on fields near Bonn
  • Struvite and its possible application

MSDS & Product

  • Yates magamp long term fertilizer
  • Struvite remover
  • Crystal green
  • Struvite
  • Struvite Information


  • Durham advanced wastewater treatment plant - Struvite recovery project
  • Struvite crystallizer for recovering phosphorous from Lagoon and digester liquid


  • Struvite crystallization
  • Dispersible struvite particles
  • Method for the prevention of struvite in fish
  • Methods for predicting oxalate and struvite stone formation in animals
  • Nitrogen rich waste water treatment method and method for producing struvite
  • Waste activated sludge phosphorous and magnesium stripping process and struvite production system
  • Preventing struvite formation in thermally treated sea foods
  • Methods for accelerating production of magnesium ammonium phosphate while attaining higher yields thereof and a slow-release fertilizer produced therefrom


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Manufacturing process

  • 5 simple ways to treat and prevent canine struvite crystals
  • Production of Struvite
  • Struvite in Nepal

Consultancy & Raw material suppliers

  • Magnesium
  • Consultancy from Montana
  • Online Consultancy
  • Struvite recovery in Kathmandu
  • Making a business from struvite crystallisation


  • Struvite control in Waste water
  • Struvite its role in phosphorous recovery and recycling
  • Struvite recovery from urine at community scale in Nepal
  • Struvite prevention and removal demonstration at enterprise farms
  • Struvite recovery from urine at community scale in Nepal   Phase 1
  • Struvite pilot demonstration and the Struvite/Digester process
  • Low rate mixing & Struvite precipitation
  • Final report on Struvite formation
  • Feline Struvite urolithiasis
  • Struvite and Staghorn Calculi treatment & Management
  • Recovery of Ammonia as Struvite from Anaerobic digester effluents


  • Thermal decomposition of Struvite
  • Study on Struvite precipitated in a Mechanically stirring fluidized bed reactor
  • Struvite recovery from digested sludge
  • Removal of ammonium as struvite using magnesite as a source  of magnesium ions
  • Phosphate recovery by struvite precipitation in a stirred reactor
  • Pilot scale struvite recovery from anaerobic digester
  • Medical management of Struvite disease in cats
  • Struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate)
  • Struvite control without chemicals

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