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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Rare earths are a group of 17 elements comprising scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides
  • The lanthanides are a group of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium,
    promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium,
    ytterbium, and lutetium
  • The recoverable reserves of Rare Earth are about a million tons in the world. China has the largest reserve of about half of the world reserves. The balance reserves are held by USA, Commonwealth of Independent states, India, Canada, South Africa and Brazil
  • European countries & Japan have almost no rare earth resources
  • Thulium is found principally in the mineral monazite, from which it is extracted by ion exchange and solvent extraction. It can also be isolated by reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with calcium metal, or reduction of the oxide
    with lanthanum metal
  • When irradiated in a nuclear reactor, thulium produces an isotope that emits X-rays. A “button” of this isotope is used to make a lightweight, portable X-ray machine for medical use. The “hot” thulium is replaced every few months.
  • China, France, India, and Japan were major import sources of
    rare-earth chlorides, nitrates, and other concentrates and compounds
  • Another end use is Electron Beam Tubes and Medical Image Visualization
  • Kg of thulium sells at about USD Eight Hundred
General Introduction
  • Product Information
  • Properties
  • Rare earth Profile

Mineral Sources

  • Rare Earths - China
  • Metal-organic compounds


  • Thulium doped Fiber Amplifier
  • Glass & Fibre Lasers
  • Thulium-based capsule and devices for use in high dose rate brachytherapy
  • Optical waveguide laser
  • Heat Source Material


  • Solvent extraction separation of the rare earths
  • Separation of rare earth values by liquid/liquid extraction
  • Double solvent liquid-liquid extraction
  • Lanthanum oxide


  • Electronic Space Products


  • Rare earth - Production report
  • Advance technical program
  • Investors
  • Rare Earth Industry profile
  • Report 2008
  • Prices
  • China Rare Earth Information

Company Profiles

  • American Company
  • Company - Thulium Lasers
  • Company profile
  • Chinese supplier


  • Canada
  • South Africa
  • Project News

Applications and Uses

  • Quantum computing applications
  • Powder Coating
  • Germanate glass fiber laser
  • Thulium doped fibre amplifier
  • End uses
  • Thulium Laser
  • Magnets
  • Permanent Magnets
  • Defense Applications
  • Selected Defense applications
  • Optical Fibre communication systems
  • Links


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