Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)
Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2)
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)
Inorganic coagulant Mineral salt
Aluminum sulphate (AlSO4)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
Ferric chloride (FeCl3)
Poly aluminum chloride (PAC)
Polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS)
Poly aluminum sulfate
Composite inorganic macromolecular coagulant Anion compounds including:
PAC combining with sulphate (SO42)
PFS combining with chloride (Cl)
Cation compounds including PAC combining with
ferric ion (Fe3+)
Multi-ion compounds including:
Complex of ferric ion
Inorganic-organic complex compounds including:
Complex of PAC and polyacrylamide (PAM)
Poly chlorinated ferric sulphate
Poly aluminium silicon
Poly aluminium phosphorus
Poly aluminium ferrous
Organic coagulant Synthetic macromolecular coagulant PAM and its ramifications
Natural macromolecular coagulant Amylum, cellulose, mucus of plant, amylose,
and their ramifications
- Contaminants come from leaking sewage pipelines,
factories discharge, agriculture run-off
- Sources and types of contaminants can be many such as
pesticides, herbicides, hospital waste, industrial effluents, waste land
heavy metals, microbes and other harmful organic and inorganic compounds.
- Two billion people worldwide do not have access to
- Most surface waters are first treated with chemicals
that combine with dirt particles.
- The dirt is then filtered out of the water, making it
- Then the water is disinfected. In addition treatment is
needed to solve special problems.
- Treatment, as described above, does not remove
dissolved toxic chemicals.
- A chemical disinfectant is added to the drinking water
at the treatment plant.
- Chlorine is the most common disinfectant.
Water Treatment Agents
The market is divided into sub segments; Coagulants and
Biocides and Disinfectants,
Defoamers and Defoaming agents,
Adjustors and Neutralizers,
Research on Carbon nano filtration membranes and nano
catalysts like iron, silver and titanium dioxide for water treatment
applications is a fast growing field
According to the Indian government only
30 % of the rural population had access
to safe drinking (tap) water in the country.
55 % depend on tube well or hand
pumps to meet their
drinking water requirement.
15 % of rural populations were still looking for a
dependable source of water.
In urban areas, 74 % depend on tap water and 18 % on
tube well and hand