Hard corals
Technology , Cultivation, Suppliers,  Dying, Consultancy, Reports, Market, Patent, Study
                                                      Primary Information Services                                               
Home. Algae Diesel . Spirulina Seaweed fertilizer . Diatomite . Phytoplankton . Astaxanthin..
Ordering Information. Contact

Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Hard corals are more colourful than soft corals and named so because they build a hard skeleton which then  remains after death. These then become building blocks of coral reefs.
  • Elkhorn coral and pillar coral are two examples of hard corals.
  • Hard corals are of two types: LPS and SPS. Which stand for large polyp stony and small polyp stony, though LPS are sometimes referred to as long polyp stony.
  • Sometimes the last ‘s’ in LPS and SPS is also referred to as scleractinian so small polyp scleractinian, as all hard corals, belong to the order Scleractinia.
  • Hard corals, however, gain most of their energy from the tiny algae which live inside their skin called as zooxanthellae (pronounced zoo-zan-thel-lee).
  • The Eastern Peninsular Malaysia area has a very diverse hard coral fauna. A total of 227 species in 66 genera were observed and identified during a study, which is approximately 80% of the number of species (and 94% or more of the genera) identified by the same author using the same method at an equivalent number of sites in each of three countries: the Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea.
  • Those three countries have the greatest coral diversity known on earth, and are known as the “Coral Triangle”.
  • Hard corals are more difficult to keep in a reef tank compared to soft corals and, of the hard corals, LPS are easier to keep or less difficult than SPS.
  • Hard corals are made of rigid calcium carbonate (limestone) and appear very much like rocks. Each polyp secretes a hard exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate.
  • As each generation of polyps dies, the coral grows a bit larger, and because each polyp is so small, hard corals grow at a very slow rate. They do not move, but they harbor various types of algae that give them their various colours.
  • Sometimes, huge colonies of hard corals live together and grow into huge masses, like the Great Coral Reef off the northeast coast of Australia, the world's largest coral reef.
  • Hard corals reefs are commonly seen on many of our Southern shores. Some are also found on our Northern shores.
  • At low tide, they are often mistaken for non-living rocks or dead corals. Many of them may actually be alive. Please never step on them.
  • Most hard corals have tiny polyps which is 1-3mm in diameter. But some hard corals such as mushroom corals are enormous solitary polyps.
  • Coral reefs are also affected by boaters who throw their anchors carelessly, and thoughtless divers and shore visitors who damage fragile features.
  • Hard corals are used as building materials, for road construction and building material: Countries known to use corals in this way are Sri Lanka, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, Maldives and India ; find use in the production of lime, calcium-carbide and cement: In the islands where terrestrial sources of lime are limited corals are particularly heavily exploited
  • Hard Coral in Malaysia
  • Quick guide to hard corals
  • Coral Reef Overview
  • Stony Corals (Hard Corals)
  • SPS Hard Corals
  • Cnidarians
  • Different Types of Corals
  • Corals
  • About Coral
  • Hard corals and coral reefs


  • Coral facts
  • Some facts on Corals
  • Hard coral fact file
  • Facts About Coral


  • A Field Identification Guide to Hard Corals
  • Identifying corals using the Indo Pacific Coral Finder
  • Id for hard coral?
  • Proposed multiple import of hard corals for taxonomic identification
  • Hard corals of Singapore


  • The Revitalisation and Development of Coral Reefs
  • Scientists successfully revitalizes, cultivates hard corals
  • Corals
  • Hard corals growth
  • Growing and Propagating Reef Corals


  • Feeding Soft Corals and Hard Corals
  • What Do Corals Eat?
  • Learn How to Feed and Keep Hard Corals
  • Feeding Hard corals
  • Never knew green brain corals eat
  • How to Feed Coral


  • Corals are dying
  • Red coralline taking out other corals
  • Hard corals dying
  • Hard corals are dying
  • Hard coral dying from base up?
  • Hard corals dying, softies living and ok?
  • All my hard corals are dying


  • Trade in Corals
  • Thresholds and multiple scale interaction of environment, resource use, and market proximity on reef fishery resources in the Solomon Islands
  • Aquaculture of coral, live rocks and associated products
  • Coral reefs at risk and the role of trade
  • Coral farming: past, present and future trends
  • International trade in hard corals: review of management, sustainability and trends


  • 40 gallon saltwater reef tank, soft and hard corals and fish
  • Malahi's Hard Coral Garden
  • Snorkelling in Hawaii with Hard Coral and Red Pencil Urchins
  • Frank's 46 Gallon Bowfront Reef Tank Aquarium with hard coral and zoanthid frags
  • Two Minutes on Hard Coral
  • TMC Bristol Australian Hard Corals
  • Suppliers of Hard corals
  • Manufacturers of Hard corals
  • Selling leads of Hard corals
  • Exporters of Hard corals
  • Hard corals Suppliers list


  • Online Consultancy


  • Composition suitable for aquatic habitat repair, replacement and/or enhancement
  • Base for propagating aquatic animals
  • Coral reef restoration
  • Coralline And Tough Algae Remover For Fish, Corals And Invertebrates Aquariums


  • Hard corals care sheet
  • Hard Coral Vs Soft Coral
  • Coral Care sheets
  • How hard are torch corals to take care of?


  • Biodiversity Surveys of Hard Corals (Scleractinia) in the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania
  • Coral characteristics and habitats in Moreton Bay
  • Coral Planning Map
  • Report to the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)
    Monitoring of the Portland Bight Protected Area (PBPA), Jamaica
  • Outer Harbour Development – Hard Coral Cover and Size-
    Frequency Distribution
  • Malaysian Hard Corals
  • Expanded Production of Hard Corals for Field Stock
    Enhancement Trials
  • Accelerated regeneration of hard corals
  • The shallow water hard corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh Province, Indonesia
  • Protracted declines in coral cover and fish abundance
    following climate-induced coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef


  • Comparative Study of Three Transect Methods to Assess Coral Cover, Richness and Diversity
  • Review on hard coral recruitment (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) in Colombia
  • Hurricanes and Anchors
  • Protecting gorgonian corals off Alaska from fishing impacts
  • New records of two hard coral species from north east of larak island
  • Differences in coral cover between high and low sediment influx areas in southwestern, Puerto Rico
  • Impact of climate change on hard corals of Lakshadweep islands
  • A comparative study of the components of the hard coral Seriatopora hystrix and the soft coral Xenia umbellata along the Jeddah coast, Saudi Arabia
  • Associations between the Scallop Pedum spondyloideum (Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia, Pectinidae) and Hard Corals on the West Coast of Thailand

Order the CD ROM Today

Primary Information Services
 21 Murugappan St, SwamyNagar Ext2, 
Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
Email : informer@eth.net,
Mobile numbers:9940043898, 9444008898  Fax : 91 44 22423753