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  • In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The word crystals originates from the Greek word "Krystallos" meaning clear ice, and once referred particularly to quartz, rock crystal.
  • Crystalline structures occur in all classes of materials, with all types of chemical bonds. Almost all metal exists in a polycrystalline state; amorphous or single-crystal metals must be produced synthetically, often with great difficulty.
  • The process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in the fluid is often referred to as crystallization.
  •  Ionically bonded crystals can form upon solidification of salts, either from a molten fluid or when it condenses from a solution.
  •  Covalently bonded crystals are also very common, notable examples being diamond, silica, and graphite.
  •  Polymer materials generally will form crystalline regions, but the lengths of the molecules usually prevents complete crystallization.
  •  Weak Van der Waals forces can also play a role in a crystal structure; for example, this type of bonding loosely holds together the hexagonal-patterned sheets in graphite.
  • The defining property of a crystal is its inherent symmetry, by which we mean that under certain operations the crystal remains unchanged.
  • There are a few crystal structures, notably the perovskite structure, which exhibit ferroelectric behaviour.
  •  This is analogous to ferromagnetism, in that, in the absence of an electric field during production, the ferroelectric crystal does not exhibit a polarisation. Upon the application of an electric field of sufficient magnitude, the crystal becomes permanently polarised.
  • Single crystal silicon ingots are created with a crystal pulling process originally developed by Mitsubishi Materials Silicon called the CZ (Czochralski) method.
  • Crushed high-purity polycrystalline silicon is doped with elements like arsenic, boron, phosphorous or antimony and melted at 1400 in a quartz crucible surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere of high-purity argon.
  •  The melt is cooled to a precise temperature, then a "seed" of single crystal silicon is placed into the melt and slowly rotated as it is "pulled" out. The surface tension between the seed and the molten silicon causes a small amount of the liquid to rise with the seed and cool into a single crystalline ingot with the same orientation as the seed. The ingot diameter is determined by a combination of temperature and extraction speed.
  • Crystals form when the concentration of a solution is higher than the solubility of the product. This of course is a thermodynamic process; however the production of crystals is governed by kinetic mechanisms.
  • This kinetic/ thermodynamic battle leads to a condition called supersaturation, a condition where the concentration of the solution is higher than the solubility product but where crystals have not been produced.
  • Crystals find numerous applications in research and modern technology.
  •  Knowledge of crystal properties and of their magnitude is the determining factor in their selection for a given purpose.
  • In addition, measured properties of a crystal are of theoretical interest. The mere existence of a property provides information about crystal symmetry, while its actual value allows comparison with theoretical values derived from a microscopic or quantum-mechanical model.
  • Photovoltaic modules make up about two-thirds of the lowest achievable grid-connected system prices that have been reported.
  •  In 2005 the average price of modules in the reporting countries was around 4,5 USD per watt, an increase of less than 5 % over the corresponding figure for 2004.
  •  Interestingly, a number of countries reported a decrease in module prices from 2004 while other countries reported almost no change.
  • The widely discussed increase in module prices appears to have been a largely European phenomenon in 2005, possibly due to the local pressures on demand.
  • Lascas1 mining and processing in Arkansas was stopped at the end of 1997, and in 2005, no U.S. firms reported the production of cultured quartz crystals.
  • Cultured quartz crystal production capacity still exists in the United States using imported and stockpiled lascas as feed material.
  •  In the past several years, cultured quartz crystal was increasingly produced overseas, primarily in Asia.
  • The native gallium nitride(GaN) crystal is used for the development of ion sensors.
  • The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique has been shown to play a key role in elucidating various aspects of Biomacromolecular recognition reactions.
  • The adsorption of radioactiveCs13 technique might be useful in detecting defective quartz crystals without destructive testing.
  •  Electronic applications accounted for most industrial uses of quartz crystal; other uses included special optical applications.
  • Crystal growth processes provide basic materials for many applications and are for example one key technology in the chain of all manufacturing processes for electronic devices.
  • The research and development of crystal growth processes is driven by the demands which come from the specific applications; but in common there is a need for an increase of crystal dimensions, improved uniformity of the relevant crystal properties in the micro- and macroscale and materials with new properties.
  • The production of quartz frequency control crystals rated the second highest military priority- second only to atomic energy.
  • A Country is well-named as the "land of crystals". With 70% of the national reserve of the precious material, it produces 80% of China's crystal products.
  • The Taiwanese market for quartz crystals is generally dominated by Japanese companies.
     

Natural Crystals

 General Information

  • Crystal
  • Different Kinds of Crystals
  • Types of Crystals
  • Physical Properties of Crystal
  • Crystal structure
  • Creating Crystals

Company

  • Company from Newjersey
  • Company from Russia
  • Company from Canada
  • Company from China
  • Company from British Columbia
  • Company from Pakistan

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Aquamarine Crystal Suppliers
  • Calcite crystal Suppliers
  • Crystal Manufacturers
  • Topaz Stone Suppliers
  • Trade Leads of Crystals
  • Wholesalers of Crystal
  • Rose Quartz Crystal Suppliers

Products

  • Crystal ball
  • Natural Crystal  Deodarant
  • Crystal pendant
  • Saly crystal lamps
  • Natural crystal bracelet
  • Natural crystal product list
  • Natural crystals

Functions and Properties

  • Properties of Crystals
  • Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory
  • Crystal Properties
  • Magnetic Properties of Crystal

Crystal Polishing Procedures

  • Polishing slide for the crystals
  • Plastic crystal polishing
  • Crystal and Rock Polishing
  • Polishing Glass Pocket Watch Crystals Methods
  • Polishing Crystal Procedure

 Buyers

  • Foreign Buyers of Crystals
  • Importers of Crystals

Project

  • Crystal Giant Project
  • Growing crystals- factors that affect the rate and the size - science Project
  • Growing Crystal Science Project
  • Growing Crystals

Safety and Guides

  • Guide to Polishing Crystals
  • Useful Links of Crystal

Applications

  • Frequency Behavior of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (Qcm) in Contact with Selected Solutions
  • Application in various metrological problems
  • Crystals in Biological Applications
  • Applications for Crystals
  • Magical Uses of Crystals
  • Crystals and their Uses
  • Uses of Crystals

Technology and Techniques

  • Development of Crystal Growth Technology
  • A Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron
  • Modern crystal processing technology
  • Crystal Production Technology
  • Crystal Growth Techniques
  • Crystallization Techniques

Patent 

  • Process for producing amethyst crystals
  • Rod shaped apatite crystals
  • Method for producing calcite-type calcium carbonate single crystal
  • Method for diffracting crystals
  • Methods for controlling crystal growth, crystallization, structures and phases in materials and systems
  • Method for the preparation of single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet
  • Purified quartz and process for purifying quartz
  • Method for producing crystals

Market

  • Quartz Crystal Market Demand
  • Booming Crystal Market
  • Devising a Crystal Clear Future
  • Jiangsu crystal market shines brighter
  • Market Information of Quartz Crystal in Taiwan
  • Market Information of Quartz Crystal in South Korea
  • Silicon and Crystal Timing Solutions Market
  • Diamond polishing in India
  • Natural Stones market

Report

  • Crystal Growth Laboratory Annual Report
  • Report for Crystal
  • Silicon Crystal Growing Facility
  • Natural Crystal quartz gold laser for healing

Cultured Crystals

General Information

  • Synthetic quartz crystals
  • Origin of authigenic inclusions in synthetic crystals
  • Synthetic lightsaber crystal
  • Research on Synthetic crystal

Production and processing

  • Production of quartz crystal in 2005
  • Production of quartz crystal in 2006
  • Production of quartz crystal in 2001
  • Production of quartz crystal
  • Production of quartz crystal in 2004
  • Production of quartz crystal in 2007
  • Modeling in Industrial Silicon Wafer Manufacturing - From Crystal Growth to Device Processes
  • Manufacturing Process of Cavan Crystal
  • Manufacturing Process of Crystal
  • Silicon Crystal Growth and Wafer Production
  • Multiscale simulations of industrial crystal growth

Products

  • Crystal Products
  • Crystal Shree
  • Crystal Decorative Products
  • Monolithic Crystal Filter
  • List of Crystal Products
  • Hand - cut beverage glasses
  • Crystal Ornaments
  • Surface Mount Tuning Fork Quartz Crystal

Cultured Crystals

Crystal Growth

  • Crystal Growth of Optical Materials for Advanced Lasers
  • Growth of Mercuric Iodide Crystals
  • Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals
  • Crystal growth and the steady-state grain size during
    high-energy ball-milling
  • Crystal Growing Bench
  • Growth of Large KDP Crystals in the Form of Plates
  • Protein Crystal Growth
  • Modeling Snow Crystal Growth
  • Single crystal growth of rare earth titanate pyrochlores
  • Growth of Crystal

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Canada Suppliers of Crystal
  • China Manufacturers of Crystals
  • Crystal Encounters
  • Engraved Glass and Crystal Wholesale Supplier
  • Crystal Abrasives Manufacturers

Functions and Properties

  • Liquid crystal properties
  • Properties of single crystal
  • Unmeasured crystal properties
  • Quartz Crystal Properties

Consultant

  • Consultant from Deutsche
  • Consultant from California
  • Consultant from London
  • International Consultant

Equipments Suppliers

  • Crystal acid polishing machine Suppliers
  • Crystal Cutting Machine Suppliers
  • Furnace Tube Suppliers
  • Manufacturers of Heaters
  • Crystal Polishing Machine Manufacturers
  • Suppliers of Vibratory Feeder

Project

  • Processes for Growing Large, Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride
  • Light propagation in photonic crystals
  • Liquid Crystal Project
  • New Liquid Crystal Smart Window and its Production Process
  • Surfaces and interfaces of liquid crystals

Safety and Guides

  •  Guidelines for TRS Single Crystal Based Stacked Actuators
  • Guidelines for Laser Safety and Hazard Assessment

Applications

  • Organic Crystals for THz Wave Applications
  • Application of a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter to Near-Infrared Spectral Searches
  • Development of Single Crystal Fibers for Optical, Scintillation and Mechanical Applications
  • Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules
  • Compact and portable holographic camera using photorefractive crystals.
  •  Gallium Nitride-Based Chemical Sensors
  • Crystals Used for the Production of Cubic Zirconia
  • Liquid Crystals- Applications and Uses
  • Laser Crystals Applications
  • Modification of Hydroxyapatite Crystal Using IR Laser

Technology and Techniques

  • Determination of coupled solvent mass in quartz crystal microbalance measurements using deuterated solvents
  • Surface adsorption of CS on Quartz crystals
  • Piezo printing technology
  • Manufacture the Next Generation Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Chips
  • CERN Technology Transfer
  • Fujitsu Develops Efficient Silicon-Crystal Production
    Technology
  • Smith and Cartz Crystal Growth Techniques

 Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Bismuth Germanate Crystal
  • Pine Crystal Bowlene Toilet Bowl Cleaner
  • Cadmium Tungstate Scintillation Crystal
  • Diamond Crystal 
  • Quartz Crystal MSDS
  • Ink Crystal Stamp Pads
  • Thallium Bromide Optical Crystal

Market

  • Trends in Photovoltaic Applications Survey
  • Market for Quartz Piezoelectric Crystal
  • Markets Expand for Piezoelectric Ceramics
  • Market for Swarovski's crystal

Report

  • Single Crystal Piezocomposite Transducer Materials
  • Multiple Time Scale Simulations of Metal Crystal Growth
  • Silicon Float-Zone Crystal Growth
  • Survey report of selected IEA countries about Photovoltaic Application
  • Controlling crystal evolution on the nanosca

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